The Medical, Social, and Economic Implications of Disease

  • B. S. Bloom
Part of the Health Systems Research book series (HEALTH)

Abstract

According to Sigismond Peller, between 20% and 25% of children born in Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries died during their first year of life [1]. By 1750, infant mortality in Sweden and Britain had declined to 16%. The great killers throughout these centuries were infections, including infant diarrhea, and poor nutrition. At the turn of the twentieth century, infant mortality was reduced to 8.5% in Sweden and 12.7% in Britain due mainly to public health advances and improved food supplies [2]. Currently infant mortality is 6.5/1000 in Sweden and 10.0/1000 in Britain and the United States. Most deaths during the first year of life are now caused by genetic and birth-related problems and prematurity.

Keywords

Arthritis Europe Covariance Pneumonia Influenza 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Peller S (1943) Studies on mortality since the Renaissance. Bull Hist Med 13: 429–461Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bloom BS (1984) Changing infant mortality: the need to spend more while getting less. Pediatrics 73: 862–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Peller S (1965) Births and deaths among Europe’s ruling families since 1500. In: Glass DC, Eversley DEC (eds) Population in history: essays in historical demography. Edward Arnold, London, pp 87–100Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Galton F (1872) Statistical inquiries into the efficacy of prayer. Fortnightly Rev 68: 125–135Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    McKinlay JB, McKinlay SM (1977) The questionable contribution of medical measures to the decline of mortality in the United States in the twentieth century. Milbank Mem Fund Q 405–428Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blendon RJ, Altman DE (1984) Public attitudes about health care costs. N Engl J Med 311: 613–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bloom BS, Knorr RS, Evans AE (1985) The epidemiology of disease expenses: the costs of caring for children with cancer. JAMA 253: 2393–2397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carson JL, Strom BL, Soper KA et al. (1987) The association of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Arch Intern Med 147: 85–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deyo RA, Inui TS, Sullivan B (1981) Noncompliance with arthritis drugs: magnitudes, correlation and clinical implications. J Rheumatol 8: 931–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Snedecor GS, Cochran WG (1980) Statistical methods. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IowaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cook TD, Campbell DT (1979) Quasi-experimentation, design and analysis issues for field settings. Rand McNally College Publishing Co., ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bloom BS, Jacobs J (1985) Cost effects of restricting cost-effective therapy. Med Care 23: 872–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. S. Bloom

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations