The Medical, Social, and Economic Implications of Disease

  • B. S. Bloom
Part of the Health Systems Research book series (HEALTH)


According to Sigismond Peller, between 20% and 25% of children born in Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries died during their first year of life [1]. By 1750, infant mortality in Sweden and Britain had declined to 16%. The great killers throughout these centuries were infections, including infant diarrhea, and poor nutrition. At the turn of the twentieth century, infant mortality was reduced to 8.5% in Sweden and 12.7% in Britain due mainly to public health advances and improved food supplies [2]. Currently infant mortality is 6.5/1000 in Sweden and 10.0/1000 in Britain and the United States. Most deaths during the first year of life are now caused by genetic and birth-related problems and prematurity.


Peptic Ulcer Infant Mortality Direct Medical Cost Early Retirement Economic Implication 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

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  • B. S. Bloom

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