Dispersal and Migration



Animal movements are basically of two types: trivial and migratory. Trivial movements take place within the territory of an individual or habitat of a population, while migratory movements carry the animals that make them away from the area. Most animals disperse from their places of origin at least once in their lives. It is generally assumed that one-time dispersal of this kind must provide some ecological and selective advantages, although these are often difficult to assess. Not infrequently, migration enables arthropods and other animals to escape from temporarily unfavorable conditions, such as winter cold, summer drought, and seasonal absence of food. It is an adaptation of inconstant environments, and an alternative to diapause.


Juvenile Hormone Biological Clock Solar Navigation Migratory Movement Terrestrial Arthropod 
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Further Reading

  1. Baker RR (1978) The evolutionary ecology of animal migration. Hodder and Stoughton, London SydneyGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker RR (ed) (1980) The mystery of migration. Macdonald, London SydneyGoogle Scholar
  3. Binns ES (1982) Phoresy as migration — some functional aspects of phoresy in mites. Biol Rev 57:571–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cloudsley-Thompson JL (1978) Animal migration. Orbis Publishing, London; Instituto Geografica de Agostini, NovaraGoogle Scholar
  5. Cloudsley-Thompson JL (1980) Biological clocks. Their functions in nature. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Dingle H (ed) (1978) Evolution of insect migration and diapause. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Johnson CG (1969) Migration and dispersal of insects by flight. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Johnson CG (1974) Insect migration: aspects of its physiology. In: Rocksteen M (ed) The physiology of Insecta, Vol 3. Academic Press, New York, pp 279–334Google Scholar
  9. Lees AD (1975) Aphid polymorphism and ‘Darwin’s demon’. Proc R Entomol Soc Lond (C) 39: 59–64Google Scholar
  10. Schmidt-Koenig K (1975) Migration and homing in animals. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Southwood TRE (1962) Migration of terrestrial arthropods in relation to habitat. Biol Rev 37: 171–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Southwood TRE (1981) Ecological aspects of insect migration. In: Aidley DJ (ed) Animal migration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge London, pp 197–208Google Scholar
  13. Taylor LR, Taylor RAJ (1978) The dynamics of spatial behaviour. In: Abling FJ, Stoddard DM (eds) Population control by social behaviour. Institute of Biology, London, pp 181–212 (Symposia of the Institute of Biology, No 23)Google Scholar
  14. Williams CB (1958) Insect migration. Collins, London (The New Naturalist)Google Scholar
  15. Wynne-Edwards VC (1962) Animal dispersion in relation to social behaviour. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology (Medawar Building), University CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonUK

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