Physiology of cardiovascular, respiratory, interstitial, endocrine, immune, and muscular systems

  • Helmut C. Hinghofer-Szalkay


Although the impact of gravity on the functioning of the cardiovascular system is obvious, implying that investigations in weightlessness should be crucial for a more complete understanding of circulatory system physiology, only a relatively small number of scientifically sound investigations have been conducted under the conditions of space flight. The understanding of long-term microgravity effects on the cardiovascular system needs more indepth investigation. Adaptive mechanisms should establish ‘homeostasis’ along with functional and possible structural changes which can be seen as symptoms of successful adaptation, but at the same time as ‘conditioning’ under the circumstances of gravitational loading.


Functional Residual Capacity Space Flight Space Environ Microgravity Simulation Lower Body Negative Pressure 
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