Advertisement

Climatic Change and Cultural Change in the Sahara Over the Last 130 Ka

  • Nicole Petit-Maire
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 36)

Abstract

Man being very sensitive to environmental variations, the equilibrium of our societies is particularly fragile in those areas which suffer frequent and severe alterations of their biotope; the Saharo-Sahelian belts belong to these unstable zones due to the high variability of monsoonal precipitation (Fairbridge,1986).In the last ten years,an increasing number of observations on lake sediments,paleosols and anthropological material has allowed the correlation of their climatic evolution with the global changes recorded in oceanic and ice cores (Lorius et al.,1993 and Shackleton 1982),as well as with the dynamics of human populations and cultures.

Keywords

Late Pleistocene Cultural Change Climatic Optimum Freshwater Mollusc Holocene Climatic Optimum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aumassip G. and Petit-Maire N. (1982). Les industries préhistoriques de la vallée du Shati. In: Le Shati, lac pléistocene du Fezzan (Libye) N. Petit-Maire (Ed.): 86–88. CNRS, Paris / Marseille, France.Google Scholar
  2. Ballais J.L. and Ben Ouezdou H. (1987). Formes et dépôts du Quaternaire Continental de la bordure presaharienne du Maghreb oriental. Essai de synthese provisoire. Conference PICG., 210: 18–19.Google Scholar
  3. Bard E., Hamelin B., and Fairbanks R.G. (1990). U-Th ages obtained by mass spectrometry in corals from Barbados: sea level during the past 130,000 years. Nature, 346: 456–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berger A. (1992). Le Climat de la Terre. Un passé pour quel avenir? De Böeck-Wesmael, pp. 475.Google Scholar
  5. Camps G., Delibrias G., and Thommeret J. (1973). Chronologie des civilisations préhistoriques du Nord de l’Afrique d’après le radiocarbone. Libyca, 21: 65–69.Google Scholar
  6. Camps-Fabrer H. (1983). Parures et engins de pêche. In: N. Petit-Maire and J. Riser (Eds). Sahara ou Sahel? Quaternaire récent du Bassin de Taoudenni, pp. 367–401. CNRS, Marseille, France.Google Scholar
  7. Chavaillon N. and Fabre J. (1960). L’Atérien d’ El Guettara. B.S.P.F., 57:346–354.Google Scholar
  8. Clark J. D. (1980). Human populations and cultural adaptations in the Sahara and the Nile during prehistoric times. In: M.A.J. Williams and H. Faure (Eds.).The Sahara and the Nile: 527–582. Balkema, Rotterdam, NL.Google Scholar
  9. Commelin D. (1984). La céramique néolithique dans le Bassin de Taoudenni (Sahara malien). Thèse, Université de Marseille, France.Google Scholar
  10. Decobert M. and Petit-Maire N. (1985). An early Neolithic midden and necropolis in Malian Sahara. Nyame Akuma, 26: 26–32.Google Scholar
  11. Durand A., Lang J., Morel A.,and Roset J.P. (1983). Evolution géomorphologique, stratigraphique et paléoclimatique au Pléistocène supérieur et à l’Holocène de l’Air oriental (Sahara méridional, Niger). Revue Géologie Dynamique et Géographie Physique, 24:47–59.Google Scholar
  12. Dutour O. (1989). Hommes fossiles du Sahara. Peuplement holocène du Mali septentrional. CNRS, Marseille: pp. 342.Google Scholar
  13. Fairbridge Ph. (1986). Monsoons and Paleomonsoons. Episodes, 9 (3): 143–149.Google Scholar
  14. Gasse F., Fontes J.C., Plaziat J.C., Carbonel P., Kaczmarska I., de Deckker P., Soulié-Marshe I., Callot Y., and Dupeuble P. (1987). Biological remains, geochemistry and stable isotopes for the reconstruction of environmental and hydrological changes in the Holocene lakes from North Sahara. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 60: 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaven C., Hillaire-Marcel C., and Petit-Maire N. (1981). A Pleistocene lacustrine episode in southeastern Libya. Nature, 290:131–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lorius C., Jouzel J., Ritz C., Merlivat L., Barkov Y.S., Korotkevich Y.S., and Kotlyakov V.M. (1993). The ice core record: climate sensitivity and future greenhouse warming. Nature, 347:139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Petit-Maire N. (1980). Holocene biogeographical variations along the northwestern African coast (28o- 19oN). Paleoclimatic interpretations. In: Sarnthein M., Seibold E. and Rognon P. (Eds): Sahara and the Surrounding Seas. Palaeoecology of Africa, 12: 365–377. Balkema, Rotterdam, NL.Google Scholar
  18. Petit-Maire N., Delibrias G., and Gaven C. (1980b). Pleistocene lakes in the Shati area, Fezzan (27° 30’N). In: Sarnthein M., Seibold E. and Rognon P. (Eds). Sahara and the Surrounding Seas. Palaeoecology of Africa, 12: 289–295. Balkema, Rotterdam, NLGoogle Scholar
  19. Petit-Maire N. (Ed.) (1982). Le Shati, lac pléistocène du Fezzan. CNRS, Paris / Marseille, France, pp.182.Google Scholar
  20. Petit-Maire N. and Riser J. (Eds.). (1983). Sahara ou Sahel? Quaternaire récent du bassin de Taoudenni (Mali). CNRS, Marseille, France.Google Scholar
  21. Petit-Maire N. (1986). Paleoclimates in the Sahara of Mali: a multidisciplinaiy study. Episodes, 9: 7–16.Google Scholar
  22. Petit-Maire N. and Dutour O. (1987). Holocene populations of the western and southern Sahara: Mechtoids and paleoclimates. In:. Close A. (Ed). Prehistory of Arid North Africa: 259–286. Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, USA.Google Scholar
  23. Petit-Maire N. and Riser J. (1988). Le Sahara à l’Holocène: Mali. - Paris (FR): CGMW, 1988. Map 1/1,000,000.Google Scholar
  24. Petit-Maire N. (1989). Interglacial environments in presently hyperarid Sahara: paleoclimatic implications. In: Leinen M., Sarnthein M. (Eds.). Paleoclimatology and Paleometeorology and Paleometeorology: Modern and Past Patterns of Global Atmospheric Transport, pp. 637–661. Dordrecht (NL), Kluwer.Google Scholar
  25. Petit-Maire N. (1990). Will Greenhouse green the Sahara? Episodes, 13/(2): 103–107.Google Scholar
  26. Petit-Maire N. (1991). Paléoenvironnements du Sahara. Lacs holocènes a Taoudenni (Mali). Editions du CNRS, Paris-Marseille, pp. 242.Google Scholar
  27. Petit-Maire N., Fontugne M., and Rouland C. (1991). Atmospheric methane ratio and environmental changes in the Sahara and Sahel during the last 130 kyrs. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 86: 197–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Petit-Maire N. (1992). Environnements et climats de la ceinture tropicale nord-africaine depuis 140 000 ans. In: Miskovsky J.C. (Dir. Publ.). Les Applications de la Géologie à la Connaissance de l’Environnement de l’Homme Fossile. Paris: Memoire Societe Geologique de France, 160: 27–34.Google Scholar
  29. Petit-Maire N., Page N., and Marchand J. (1994). The Sahara in the Holocene. Map 1/5,000,000. UNESCO and CGMW, Paris.Google Scholar
  30. Petit-Maire N., Reyss J.L., and Fabre J. (1994). Un paléolac du dernier interglaciaire au Sahara Malien actuellement hyperide (23°N). Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris, 319, II: 805–809.Google Scholar
  31. Raimbault M. (1994). Sahara malien: environnement, populations et industries préhistoriques. Thèse Doctorat d’Etat, Université de Provence (Aix-en-Provence), pp. 1095.Google Scholar
  32. Roche J. (1963). L’épipaléolithique marocain. Didier, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  33. Shackleton N.J. (1982). The deep sea sediment records of climate variability. Proc. Oceanogr., 2:199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smith A.B. (1980). The neolithic traditions in the Sahara. In: Williams M.A.J. and Faure H. (Eds). The Sahara and the Nile: 451–466. Balkema, Rotterdam, NL.Google Scholar
  35. Talbot M. (1984). Late pleistocene rainfall and dune building in the Sahel. Palaeoecology of Africa, 16: 203–214.Google Scholar
  36. Tillet T. (1983). Le Paléolithique du bassin Tchadien Septentrional. CNRS, Marseille, France.Google Scholar
  37. Wendorf F., Close A., and Schild R. (1987). Recent work on the Middle Paleolithic of the eastern Sahara. A.A.R., 5: 49–63.Google Scholar
  38. Yan Z. and Petit-Maire N. (1994). The last 140 Ka in the Afro-Asian arid / semi-arid transitional zone. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 110: 217–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole Petit-Maire
    • 1
  1. 1.International Union of Geological Sciences, URA 164, CNRS, Case 907, LuminyMarseille Cedex 9France

Personalised recommendations