The Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistula: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Therapy

  • S. Bien
  • J. P. Wakat


Three types of carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulae have to be distinguished:
  1. 1.

    Dural external and internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulae

  2. 2.

    Direct, spontaneous, internal carotid artery-cavernous fistulae, and

  3. 3.

    Direct, traumatic internal carotid artery-cavernous fistulae



Internal Carotid Artery Internal Carotid Balloon Catheter Detachable Balloon Superior Ophthalmic Vein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Bien
  • J. P. Wakat

There are no affiliations available

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