Role of Complement in Xenograft Rejection

  • A. P. Dalmasso


The immediate fate of a xenograft is largely dependent on the species relationship of the donor-host combination, which can be concordant or discordant. In a concordant combination donor and host belong to closely related species and there is no hyperacute rejection (HAR) of the transplant [1]. The recipient does not have preformed antibodies against the endothelium of the donor organ; in addition, the vascular endothelium of the donor does not directly activate recipient complement. In contrast, in a discordant combination complement activation by preexisting antibodies in the recipient or by the vascular endothelium of the donor organ causes HAR of the xenograft [2]. Biologically active fragments and protein complexes derived from complement activate and damage the endothelial cells of the graft, and recruit and activate recipient blood cells, resulting in interstitial edema, hemorrhage, and thrombosis, which ultimately destroy the graft within minutes or a few hours of revascularization.


Complement Activation Membrane Attack Complex Natural Antibody Complement Inhibitor Membrane Cofactor Protein 
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