Computed Tomography

  • V. N. Cassar-Pullicino
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

In 1935, Grossman coined the term “tomography” from the Greek “tomos”, meaning section or cut, to denote the method using conventional radiography to depict specific layers within the human body. In conventional tomography the image of the section is orientated parallel to the film. Computed tomography (CT) refers to the method of obtaining information from the passage of x-ray beams through a selected area of the body which in turn is processed with the aid of a sophisticated computer. The computer then produces clear sharp images of the internal structure of the body in the axial plane.

Keywords

Attenuation Tuberculosis Radon Myeloma Xenon 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aitken AGF, Flodmark O, Newman DE, et al. (1985) Leg length determination by CT digital radiography. Am J Roentgenol 144:613–616Google Scholar
  2. Andre M, Resnick D (1995) Computed tomography. Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders, 3rd, vol 1. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 118–170Google Scholar
  3. Baxes GA (1984) Digital image processing. A practical primer. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  4. Baxter BS, Sorenson JA (1981) Factors affecting the measurement of size and CT numbers in computed tomography. Invest Radiol 16:337–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boven F, De Boeck M, Potvliege R (1983) Synovial plicae of the knee on computed tomography. Radiology 147:805–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brant WE (1986) Physics and artifacts. In: Vogler JB, Helms CA, Callen PW (eds) Normal variants and pitfalls in imaging. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  7. Cassar-Pullicino VN, McCall IW, Wan S (1992) Intra-articular osteoid osteoma. Clin Radiol 45:153–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cormack AM (1980) Early two-dimensional reconstruction and recent topics stemming from it. Nobel award address. Med Phys 7:277–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dalinka MK, Arger P, Coleman V (1985) CT in pelvic trauma. Orthop Clin North Am 16:471–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Davies AM, Cassar-Pullicino VN (1989) Demonstration of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus by coronal computed tomographic arthrography. Br J Radiol 62:1050–1055PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davies AM, Cassar-Pullicino VN, Grimer RJ (1992) The incidence and significance of fluid levels on computed tomography of oseous lesions. Br J Radiol 65:193–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Santis M, Crisi G, Vici FF (1984) Late contrast enhancement in the CT diagnosis of herniated lumbar disk. Neuroradiology 26:303–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Deutsch AL, Resnick D, Berman JL, et al. (1984) Computerized and conventional arthrotomography of the glenohumeral joint: normal anatomy and clinical experience. Radiology 153:603–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dihlmann W (1982) CT analysis of the upper end of the femur. The asterisk sign and ischaemic bone necrosis of the femoral head. Skeletal Radiol 8:251–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doyle T, King K (1989) Percutaneous removal of osteoid osteomas using CT control. Clin Radiol 40:514–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fishman EK (1991) Three dimensional imaging. Radiology 181:321–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fishman EK, Wyatt SH, Bluemke DA, et al. (1993) Spiral CT of musculoskeletal pathology: preliminary observations. Skeletal Radiol 22:253–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gabor HT (1980) Image reconstruction from projections. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Handel SF, Lee Y-Y (1981) Computed tomography of spinal fractures. Radiol Clin North Am 19:69–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hernandez RJ, Poznanski AK (1985) CT evaluation of pediatric hip disorders. Orthop Clin North Am 16:513–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hernandez RJ, Tachdjian MO, Poznanski AK, et al. (1981) CT determination of femoral torsion. Am J Roentgenol 137:97–101Google Scholar
  22. Holland P, Davies AM, Cassar-Pullicino VN (1994) Computed tomographic arthrography in the assessment of osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow. Clin Radiol 49:231–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hounsfield GN (1973) Computerized transverse axial scanning (tomography). Part I. Description of the system. Br J Radiol 46:1016–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hounsfield GN (1980) Computed medical imaging. Nobel award address. Med Phys 7:283–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kalender WA, Polacin A (1991) Physical characteristics of spiral CT scanning. Med Phys 18:910–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kalender WA, Seissler W, Klotz E, Vock P (1990) Spiral volumetric CT with single breath-hold technique, continuous transport, and continuous scanner rotation. Radiology 176:181–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Laasonen EM, Jokie P, Lindholm TS (1984) Tibial torsion measured by computed tomography. Acta Radiol 25:325–329Google Scholar
  28. Levi C, Gray JE, McCullough EC, et al. (1982) The unreliability of CT numbers as absolute values. Am J Roentgenol 139:443–447Google Scholar
  29. Lukens JA, McLeod RA, Sim FH (1982) Computed tomographic evaluation of primary osseous malignant neoplasms. Am J Roentgenol 139:45–48Google Scholar
  30. Martinez S, Herzenberg JE, Apple JS (1985) Computed tomography of the hindfoot. Orthop Clin North Am 16:481–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Meaney JF, Cassar-Pullicino VN, Etherington R, et al. (1992) Ilio-psoas bursa enlargement. Clin Radiol 45:161–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Modic MT (ed) (1991) Imaging of the spine. Radiol Clin North Am 29, no. 4Google Scholar
  33. Morin RL, Raeside DE (1981) A pattern recognition method for the removal of streaking artifact in computed tomography. Radiology 141:229–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Norman A, Nelson J, Green S (1985) Fractures of the hook of hamate: radiographic signs. Radiology 154:49–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Passariello R, Trecco F, DePaulis F, et al. (1983) Computed tomography of the knee joint: clinical results. J Computed Assist Tomogr 7:1043–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Radon J (1917) On the determination of functions from their integrals along certain manifolds. Ber Saech Akad Wiss Leipzig Math Phys Kl 69:262Google Scholar
  37. Reiser M, Karpf PM, Bernett P (1982a) Diagnosis of chondromalacia patellae using CT arthrography. Eur J Radiol 2:181–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Reiser M, Rupp N, Karpf PM, et al. (1982b) Erfahrungen mit der CT-Arthrographie der Kreuzbänder des Kniegelenkes. ROFO 137:372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Roger B, Bellin MF, Wioland M, et al. (1996) osteoid osteoma: CT guided percutaneous excision confirmed with immediate follow-up scintigraphy in 16 outpatients. Radiology 210:239–242Google Scholar
  40. Romans LE (1995) Introduction to computed tomography. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  41. Schubiger O, Valavanis A (1982) CT differentiation between recurrent disc herniation and postoperative scar formation: the value of contrast enhancement. Neuroradiology 22:251–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Seeram E (1994) Computed tomography: physical principles, clinical applications and quality control. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  43. Silver DA, Cassar-Pullicino VN, Morrissey BM, et al. (1992) Gas-containing ganglia of the hip. Clin Radiol 46:257–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Silverman PM (ed) (1995) Helical (spiral) computed tomography. Radiol Clin North Am 33, no. 5Google Scholar
  45. Teplick JG, Haskin ME (eds) (1983) CT of the lumbar spine. Radiol Clin North Am 21, no. 2Google Scholar
  46. Totty WG, Vannier MW (1984) Complex musculoskeletal anatomy: analysis using three dimensional surface reconstruction. Radiology 150:173–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Walker C, Cassar-Pullicino VN, Vaisha R, et al. (1993) The patello-femoral joint — a critical appraisal of its geometric assessment utilising conventional axial radiography and computed arthro-tomography. Br J Radiol 66:755–761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Weisz GM (1986) The value of CT in diagnosing postoperative lumbar conditions. Spine 11:164–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wing VW, Jeffrey RB Jr, Federle MP, et al. (1985) Chronic osteomyelitis examined by CT. Radiology 154:171–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Young SW, Muller HH, Marshall WH (1983) Computed tomography: beam hardening and environmental density artifact. Radiology 148:279–283PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. N. Cassar-Pullicino
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Institute of OrthopaedicsThe Robert Jones & Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic & District HospitalOswestry, ShropshireUK

Personalised recommendations