External Referencing Systems

  • R. W. Newman
  • E. A. Penner
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The value of MR, CT or other diagnostic imaging modalities in assisting in surgical procedures has long been recognized. To extend the clinical utility of these images, stereotactic frames were introduced to allow the spatial information from the computer-based “image space” to be translated back into patient-based “physical space”, allowing for increased precision in the planning of interventional procedures. Several computer workstation systems are in clinical use for common stereotactic procedures, such as brain biopsies and, the introduction of stents, lasers, or radiotherapy devices into critical areas. The process is rather complex, however, as it is first necessary to attach a set of fiducials to the patient prior to MR/CT imaging (i.e., a mechanical head frame, implanted markers, skin markers, etc.). A complete volume of images is subsequently collected including the fiducials. These are then transferred to a computer for display.


Pointer System Error Distance Stereotactic Frame Liquid Crystal Display Monitor Interventional Device 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Newman
    • 1
  • E. A. Penner
    • 2
  1. 1.General Electric CompanyMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.GE Medical SystemsAachenGermany

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