Staging of Bladder Cancer

  • W. Ijzerman
  • P. Jung
  • G. Jakse
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


In the Western world about 70% of patients with bladder cancer will have a superficial tumor (Tis, Ta, or T1) at first diagnosis, while only 30% will present with muscle-invasive cancer (T2, T3-4, N+, M+) (Steinberg et al. 1992). History, physical examination, urine cytology, intravenous pyelography, and endoscopy, together with adequate tissue sampling by transurethral resection (TUR), are considered to be the cornerstones of the diagnostic armamentarium. Procedures such as bimanual examination, random biopsy, ultrasonography, computer tomography, and bone scintigraphy are considered a routine part of the staging process. The invasive and metastatic behavior of bladder cancer depends on the depth of tumor invasion. We can grossly differentiate superficial tumors, which are only occasionally disseminated at first presentation, from muscle-invasive tumors, which in a significant percentage of cases are accompanied by regional or distant metastases. Both the diagnostic workup and the therapy differ significantly for these two groups, as will be discussed below.


Bladder Cancer Bone Scintigraphy Bladder Tumor Radical Cystectomy Transitional Cell Carcinoma 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Ijzerman
    • 1
  • P. Jung
    • 1
  • G. Jakse
    • 1
  1. 1.Urological University ClinicAachen Technical University of Rheinisch-Westfalen (RWTH)AachenGermany

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