Advertisement

ELAWAT: Goals and Conceptual Framework

  • Sabine Dittmann
  • Volker Grimm

Abstract

The “Ecosystem Research Wadden Sea” consisted of four large joint projects carried out since 1989 on the southern North Sea coast of Germany. The projects had two major goals which were closely related. One was to develop a protection and management strategy for the Wadden Sea to preserve the diversity of its biota and landscape. This aspect also addressed the sustainable use of the Wadden Sea, i.e. a use of resources in such a way that no long-term decline of biological diversity results and the needs and aspirations of present and future generations are maintained. This goal was the task of two applied projects within the “Ecosystem Research Wadden Sea”, one in the state of Schleswig-Holstein and the other in Lower Saxony (Stock et al. 1996; Dittmann et al. 1997; Kellermann et al. 1997). The second goal was to achieve a fundamental understanding of this ecosystem. This was the task of two research projects, namely SWAP (“Sylter Wattenmeer Austausch Prozesse” = “Exchange processes of the Sylt Rømø-bight”), which was carried out in Schleswig-Holstein (Gätje & Reise 1998), and ELAWAT (“Elastizitat des Ökosystems Wattenmeer” = “Resilience of the Wadden Sea ecosystem”; Dittmann et al. 1997), carried out in Lower Saxony.

Keywords

Stability Property Emergent Property Stability Concept Tidal Area Marine Benthic Community 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ARSU (1989) Programmkonzeption zur Ökosystemforschung im niedersachsischen Wattenmeer. Umweltbundesamt, Texte 11/1989, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  2. Beukema J J, Dörjes J, Essink, K (1988) Latitudinal differences in survival during a severe winter in macrozoobenthic species sensitive to low temperatures. Senckenbergiana marit 20: 19–30.Google Scholar
  3. Boesch DF, Rosenberg R (1981) Response to stress in marine benthic communities. In: Barrett GW, Rosenberg R (Eds) Stress Effects on Natural Ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., pp 179-200Google Scholar
  4. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199: 1302–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Connell JH, Sousa W (1983) On the evidence needed to judge ecological stability or persistence. Am Nat 121: 789–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Costanza R, Kemp WM, Boynton WR (1993) Predictability, scale, and biodiversity in coastal and estuarine ecosystems: implications for management. Ambio 22: 88–96Google Scholar
  7. Dayton PK (1984) Patch dynamics and stability of some California kelp communities. Ecol Monogr 54: 253–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dittmann S, Kröncke, I, Albers, B, Liebezeit, G (Eds) (1996) The Concept of Ecosystems. Senckenbergiana marit 27: 81-255.Google Scholar
  9. Dittmann S, Marencic H, Roy, M (1997) Ökosystemforschung im Niedersachsischen Wattenmeer. In: Fränzle O, Müller F, Schröder W (Eds) Handbuch der Umweltwissenschaften. Ecomed, Landsberg, V-4.1.2Google Scholar
  10. Downes BJ (1990) Patch dynamics and mobility of fauna in streams and other habitats. Oikos 59: 411–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frid CLJ, Townsend CR (1989) An appraisal of the patch dynamics concept in stream and marine benthic communities whose members are highly mobile. Oikos 56: 137–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gatje C, Reise K (1998) Okosystem Wattenmeer. Austausch-, Transport- und Stoffumwandlungsprozesse. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Golley FB (1993) A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  14. Grimm V (1996) A down-to-Earth assessment of stability concepts in ecology: dreams, demands and the real problems. Senckenbergiana marit 27: 215–226Google Scholar
  15. Grimm V, Schmidt E, Wissel C (1992) On the application of stability concepts in ecology. Ecol Model 63: 143–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grimm V, Wissel C (1997) Babel, or the ecological stability discussions: An inventory and analysis of terminology and a guide for avoiding confusion. Oecologia 109: 323–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grubb PJ, Hopkins AJM (1986) Resilience at the level of the plant community. In: Dell B, Hopkins AJM, Lamont BB (Eds). Resilience in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. Dr W Junk Publ, Dordrecht, pp 21-38Google Scholar
  18. Homeier H (1979) Die Verlandung der Harlebucht bis 1600 auf der Grundlage neuer Befunde. Forschungsstelle Norderney, Jahresber 1978/30: 105–115Google Scholar
  19. Homeier H, Luck G (1969) Das historische Kartenwerk 1 : 50000 der Niedersachsischen Wasserwirtschaftsverwaltung als Ergebnis historisch-topographischer Untersuchungen und Grundlage zur kausalen Deutung hydrologisch-morphologischer Gestaltungsvorgänge im Küstengebiet. Veröffent. Niedersachs. Inst, für Landeskunde und Landesentwicklung Universitüt Göttingen: Reihe A: Forschungs-, Landes- und Volkskunde. GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  20. Jax K (1994a) Das ökologische Babylon. Bild der Wissenschaft 9: 92–95Google Scholar
  21. Jax K (1994b) Mosaik-Zyklus und Patch-dynamics: Synonyme oder verschiedene Konzepte? Eine Einladung zur Diskussion. Z. Okologie und Naturschutz 3: 107–112Google Scholar
  22. Jax K, Vareschi E, Zauke G-P (1993) Entwicklung eines theoretischen Konzepts zur Okosystemforschung Wattenmeer. Umweltbundesamt, Berlin. Texte 47/93Google Scholar
  23. Jax K (1996) Über die Leblosigkeit ökologischer Systeme - Zur Rolle des individuellen Organismus in der Ökologie. In: Ingensiep HW, Hoppe-Sailer R (Eds). NaturStücke. Zur Kulturgeschichte der Natur. Edition Tertium: Ostfildern, pp 209–230Google Scholar
  24. Johnson RG (1970) Variations in diversity within benthic marine communities. Am Nat 104: 285–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson RG (1972) Conceptual models of benthic marine communities. In: Schopf TJM (Ed). Models in Paleobiology. Freeman Cooper & Co., San Francisco, pp 148–159Google Scholar
  26. Kellermann et al. (1997) Ökosystemforschung im Schleswig-Holsteinischen Wattenmeer. In: Frünzle O, Müller F, Schroder W (Eds) Handbuch der Umweltwissenschaften. Ecomed, Landsberg, V-4.1.1Google Scholar
  27. Likens GE (1992) The Ecosystem Approach: Its Use and Abuse. Excellence In Ecology 3. Kinne O (Ed) Ecology Institute, Oldendorf/LuheGoogle Scholar
  28. Manson BÅ, McGlade JM (1993) Ecology, thermodynamics and HT Odum’s conjectures. Oecologia 93: 582–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meier D (1994) Geschichte der Besiedlung und Bedeichung im Nordseeküstenraum. In: Lozan JL, Rachor E, Reise K, v. Westernhagen H, Lenz W (Eds). Warnsignale aus dem Wattenmeer. Blackwell, Berlin, pp 11–17Google Scholar
  30. Müller F, Breckling B, Bredemeier M, Grimm V, Malchow H, Nielsen, SN, Reiche EW (1997) Emergente Ökosystemeigenschaften. In: Fränzle O, Müller F, Schröder W (Eds). Handbuch der Umweltwissenschaften. Ecomed: Landsberg, III-2.5Google Scholar
  31. Odum EP (1971) Fundamentals of Ecology (3rd edn). Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  32. Orians GH (1975) Diversity, stability and maturity in natural ecosytems. In: van Dobben WH, Lowe-McConnell RH (Eds). Unifying Concepts in Ecology. Pudoc (Dr W Junk), The Hague, pp 139-150Google Scholar
  33. Paine RT, Levin SA (1981) Intertidal landscapes: disturbance and the dynamics of pattern. Ecol Monogr 51: 145–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pickett STA, White PS (1985) The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics. Academic Press, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  35. Probert PK (1984) Disturbance, sediment stability, and trophic structure of soft-bottom communities. J Mar Res 42: 893–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reise K (1985) Tidal Flat Ecology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, Ecological Studies 54Google Scholar
  37. Reise K (1990) Immer erst warum fragen. Plädoyer für ein neues Konzept der Meeres-Okologie. Waterkant 4/90: 13–16Google Scholar
  38. Reise K (1991) Mosaic cycles in the marine benthos. In: The Mosaic Cylce Concept of Ecosystems. H. Remmert (Ed). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 61–82Google Scholar
  39. Reise K (1994) Ökologische Qualitätsziele für eine ziellose Natur? In: Ökologische Qualitätsziele für das Meer. Schriftenreihe der Schutzgemeinschaft deutsche Nordseeküste e.V., Wilhelmshaven, pp 38-45Google Scholar
  40. Remmert H (1991) The Mosaic Cylce Concept of Ecosystems. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, Ecological Studies 85Google Scholar
  41. Skilleter GA (1995) Environmental disturbance. In: Underwood AJ, Chapman MG (Eds). Coastal Marine Ecology of Temperate Australia. UNSW Press, pp 263-276Google Scholar
  42. Sousa WP (1984) The role of disturbance in natural communities. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 15: 353–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sommer U (1996) Can ecosystem properties be optimized by natural selection? Senckenbergiana marit 27: 145–150Google Scholar
  44. Stock M et al. (1996) Okosystemforschung Wattenmeer -Synthesebericht: Grundlagen für einen Nationalparkplan. Schriftenreihe des Nationalparks Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer, Heft 8Google Scholar
  45. Tansley AG (1935) The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16 (3) 284–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thistle D (1981) Natural physical disturbances and communities of marine soft bottoms. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 6: 223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Trepl L (1988) Gibt es Ökosysteme? Landschaft + Stadt 20: 176–185Google Scholar
  48. van Blaricom GR (1982) Experimental analyses of structural regulation in a marine sand community exposed to oceanic swell. Ecol Monogr 52: 283–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Waide JB (1995) Ecosystem stability: revision of the resistence-resilience model. In: Patten BC, Jørgensen SE (Eds). Complex Ecology: The Part-Whole Relation in Ecosystems. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, pp 372–396Google Scholar
  50. Wiegleb G, Bröring U (1996) The position of epistemological emergentism in ecology. Senckenbergiana marit 27: 179–193Google Scholar
  51. Wissel C (1992) Modelling the mosaic-cycle of a Middle European beech forest. Ecol Modell 63: 29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zens M, Michaelis H, Herlyn M, Reetz M (1997) Die Miesmuschelbestände der niedersachsischen Watten im Frühjahr 1994. Ber Forsch-Stelle Küste 41, pp 141–155Google Scholar
  53. Ziegelmeier E (1964) Einwirkungen des kalten Winters 1962/63 auf das Makrobenthos im Ostteil der Deutschen Bucht. Helgol wiss Meeresunters 10: 276–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabine Dittmann
  • Volker Grimm

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations