Modelling Sea Ice Roughness in the Arctic

  • N. Steiner
  • M. Harder
  • P. Lemke
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 56)


The variability of sea ice in the polar regions is an important factor in the climate system particularly because of its strong influence on heat and freshwater transports as well as momentum exchange between ocean and atmosphere. To describe these effects accurately ice conditions need to be known over long time periods and wide regions. Models are able to produce such data but need to be verified by observations (Lemke et al., 1998). One classical model variable which can be validated quite well with remote sensing methods (SMMR, SSM/I) is the ice coverage. Modelled ice drift can be verified by comparing observed and simulated drift trajectories (Kreyscher et al., 1998). Ice thickness observations, however, are only rarely available from drillings, sonar measurements and laser altimeter recordings.


Synthetic Aperture Radar Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Freshwater Transport Deformation Work Pressure Ridge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Augstein, E. and Cruise Participants. 1997. The expedition ARCTIC ’96 of RV “Polarstern” (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) Berichte zur Polarforschung, 234, 30 Google Scholar
  2. Bourke, R.H. and A.S. McLaren. 1992. Contour mapping of Arctic Basin ice draft and roughness parameters, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C11), 17.715–17.728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlström, A. and L.M.H. Ulander. 1995. Validation of backscatter models for level and deformed sea-ice in ERS-1 SAR images, Int. J. Remote Sensing, 16(17), 3245–3266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davis, N.R. and P. Wadhams. 1995. A statistical analysis of Arctic pressure ridge morphology, J. Geophys. Res., 100(C6), 10.915–10.925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Evers, K.-U., P. Jochmann. 1995. Determination of the topography of pressure ice ridges in the Laptev Sea. HSVA-Report, E 258/95Google Scholar
  6. Harder, M. 1996. Dynamik, Rauhigkeit und Alter des Meereises in der Arktis — Numerische Untersuchungen mit einem großskaligen Modell, Berichte zur Polarforschung, 203 Google Scholar
  7. Harder, M. 1998. Roughness, age and drift trajectories of sea ice in large-scale simulations and their use in model verifications, Annals of Glaciology 25, in pressGoogle Scholar
  8. Hibler, W.D. 1979. A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9, 815–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hopkins, M.A. 1994. On the ridging of intact lead ice., J Geophys. Res., 99(C8), 16.351–16.360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hopkins, M.A. and W.D. Hibler. 1991. On the ridging of a thin sheet of lead ice, Annals of Glaciology, 15, 81–86Google Scholar
  11. Hopkins, M.A., W.D. Hibler and G.M. Flato. 1991. On the numerical simulation of the sea ice ridging process, J. Geophys. Res., 96(C3), 4809–4820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kreyscher, M. and M. Harder. 1998. First results of the Sea Ice Model Intercomparison Project (SIMIP), Annals of Glaciology 25, in pressGoogle Scholar
  13. Lemke, P., W.D. Hibler, G. Flato, M. Harder and M. Kreyscher. 1998. On the improvement of sea ice models for climate simulations: the sea ice model intercomparison project, Annals of Glaciology 25, in pressGoogle Scholar
  14. Parkinson, C.L. and W.M. Washington. 1979. A large-scale numerical model of sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 84(C1), 6787–6803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rothrock, D.A. 1975. The energetics of plastic deformation of pack ice by ridging, J. Geophys. Res., 80(33), 4514–4519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rothrock, D.A. and A.S. Thorndike. 1980. Geometric properties of the underside of sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 85(C7), 3955–3963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Thorndike, A.S. 1992. Estimates of sea ice thickness distribution using observations and theory, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C8), 12, 601–12, 605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Timco, G.W. and R.P. Burden. 1997. An analysis of the shapes of sea ice ridges, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 25, 65–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wadhams, P. and N. Ono. 1998. Downstream evolution of ice thickness in the Arctic Ocean — evidence for melting?, submitted to J. Geophys. Res.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Steiner
    • 1
  • M. Harder
    • 1
  • P. Lemke
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für MeereskundeKielGermany

Personalised recommendations