Changing patterns of air conditioning in Japan

  • Harold Wilhite
  • Hidetoshi Nakagami
  • Chiharu Murakoshi
Conference paper


Japanese air conditioning patterns have changed significantly over the past 30 years. The changes can be linked to increasing affluence and the consequent changes Japanese life patterns, but also to changes in the style and content of the Japanese dwelling. The advertising media has contributed to the changes by reshaping perceptions of what it is to be a modern Japanese family.


Energy Efficiency Heat Pump Energy Service Sustainable Consumption European Science Foundation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ger, Guliz, Inge Rö; pke, Harold Wilhite, Bente Halkier, and Jeppe Laessoe. Forthcoming. Symbolic meanings of high and low impact daily consumption practices in different cultures. In E. Shove, M. Jacobs, G. Spaargaren H. Wilhite, eds., Consumption, Everyday Life and Sustainability. European Science Foundation.Google Scholar
  2. Giovannini, Bernard and A. Baranzini, eds. Energy Modelling Beyond Economics and Technology. Geneva: International Academy of the Environment and the Center for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva.Google Scholar
  3. Haaland, Hans and Harold Wilhite, eds. 1996. Baerekraftig forbruk: nytenking omkring forskningsutfordringer og policy tilnaermeringer (Sustainable consumption: research challenges and creative policy approaches). The Norwegian Research Council Report series. NFR, Oslo, Norway.Google Scholar
  4. Lutzenhiser, Loren. 1993. Social and behavioral aspects of energy use. Annual Review of Energy and Environment 18: 247–289.Google Scholar
  5. Mackay, Hughie and Gareth Gillespie. 1992. Extending the social shaping of technology approach: Ideology and appropriation. Social Studies of Science 22: 685–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. McKenzie, Donald and Judy Wajcman (eds.). 1985. The social shaping of technology: how the refrigerator got its hum. Philadelphia: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Nakagami, Hidetoshi. 1994. Kurashi no henka to enerugii: jyuutaku setsubi kiki no hensen to enerugii shouhi (Lifestyle change and energy: Household equipment and energy consumption). Journal of the Institute of Electrical Engineering of Japan, Special Issue: Residential environment in the near future, vol.114(9), September.Google Scholar
  8. Pantzar, Mika. 1996. Kuinka teknologia kesytetaan? Kulutuksen tieteesta kulutuksen taiteeseen (Domestication of technology: From the science of consumption to the art of consumption). Tammi Press: Helsinki.Google Scholar
  9. Wilhite, Harold. 1994. Market signals fall short as policy instruments to encourage energy savings in the home. Proceedings from the 1994 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 1: 193–200. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  10. Wilhite, Harold, Hidetoshi Nakagami, Takashi Masuda, Yukiko Yamaga and Hiroshi Haneda. 1996. A Cross Cultural Analysis of energy-use behavior in Japan and Norway. Energy Policy 24(9): 795–803.Google Scholar
  11. Wilhite, Harold and Loren Lutzenhiser. 1997. Social loading and sustainable consumption. Proceedings from the 1997 ECEEE Summer Study. Splynderav Mlyn, Czech Republic, June.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold Wilhite
    • 1
  • Hidetoshi Nakagami
    • 2
  • Chiharu Murakoshi
    • 2
  1. 1.OsloNorway
  2. 2.Jyukankyo Research InstituteJapan

Personalised recommendations