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Recombinant Viruses as Vectors for Mucosal Immunity

  • C. D. Morrow
  • M. J. Novak
  • D. C. Ansardi
  • D. C. Porter
  • Z. Moldoveanu
Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 236)

Abstract

Vaccines represent one of the most effective ways to control the spread of infectious diseases. The design of new vaccines that are effective against complex infectious agents presents several formidable challenges. Viral, bacterial and parasitic agents, which cause diseases of the respiratory, intestinal, and genital tract, enter through and can sometimes infect mucosal surfaces. Thus, a vaccine designed to protect against infection would need to stimulate both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Development of new vaccines designed to stimulate both humoral and mucosal immunity faces several hurdles. To stimulate mucosal immunity, the antigens need to be delivered to immunoreactive sites, such as the small intestine, nasal tissue, genital tract or rectum, where discrete lymphoid follicles are found (McGhee et al. 1992; Mestecky 1988; Ogra et al. 1973). Antigen stimulation at these mucosal sites results in the generation of large numbers of plasma-cell precursors, which have the capacity to migrate to distinct mucosal sites. This results in the appearance of antibodies in the corresponding secretions (Mestecky et al. 1987). The delivery of antigens to mucosal sites must overcome many difficulties. For example, the low pH environment of the stomach, as well as the presence of proteolytic enzymes in the stomach and intestines, precludes the oral administration of many antigens (Mestecky 1988). In many instances, mucosal surfaces also have physical as well as biochemical barriers which make the administration of these vaccines difficult.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Respiratory Syncytial Virus Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Mucosal Immunity Mucosal Immune Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. D. Morrow
    • 1
  • M. J. Novak
    • 1
  • D. C. Ansardi
    • 1
  • D. C. Porter
    • 1
  • Z. Moldoveanu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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