Bacterial Mucosal Vaccines: Vibrio cholerae as a Live Attenuated Vaccine/Vector Paradigm

  • K. Killeen
  • D. Spriggs
  • J. Mekalanos
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 236)


Immunization is the most effective public health tool used to control infectious disease. Moreover, immunization is extremely cost effective given that disease treatment is far more expensive than prevention of disease. The cost of vaccines and their administration from birth to age 16 is estimated by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to be US $500. Each US $1 spent on vaccinations saves US $16 in avoiding costly drug therapies and hospitalizations (Fettner 1994) ultimately saving approximately US $7500 per vaccinated individual. Furthermore, phenomena such as herd immunity can provide protection to a community, even when only a minority of the total population has been vaccinated. Ideally, vaccination leads to the total eradication of an infectious agent that has no alternative hosts or environmental reservoirs, e.g., smallpox and, in the near future, polio.


Vaccine Strain Cholera Vaccine Inactivate Poliovirus Vaccine Bacterial Vector Attenuate Vaccine Strain 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Killeen
    • 1
  • D. Spriggs
    • 1
  • J. Mekalanos
    • 2
  1. 1.Virus Research InstituteCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsHarvard Medical School and the Shipley Institute of MedicineBostonUSA

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