Advertisement

Some Neurological Principles Relevant to the Origins of — and the Cortical Plasticity-Based Remediation of — Developmental Language Impairments

Conference paper
Part of the Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences book series (NEUROSCIENCE)

Abstract

Recent advances in integrative neuroscience have led to an increasing understanding of the brain plasticity mechanisms underlying perceptual, cognitive and motor skill learning in children and in adults (see Merzenich et al. 1991 a, b; Merzenich and Sameshima 1993; Merzenich and DeCharms 1996; Buonomano and Merzenich 1998, for reviews). These studies have shown how these natural neurological processes can contribute to the often-powerful behavioral expressions of chronic neurological illnesses and disabilities (see Merzenich et al. 1991 a, 1993, 1996 a, b; Merzenich and Jenkins 1995; other chapters, this volume). They also point to practical strategies by which the same dynamic brain processes can be marshalled for neuroscience-guided, training-based amelioration of specific neurological impairments.

Keywords

Specific Language Impairment Input Event Cortical Plasticity Speech Reception Representational Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahissar M, Hochstein S (1993) Attentional control of early perceptual learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:5718–5722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahissar E, Vaadia E, Ahissar M, Bergman H, Arieli A, Abeles M (1992) Dependence of cortical plasticity on correlated activity of single neurons and on behavioral context. Science 257:1412–1415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aizawa H, Inase M, Mushiake H, Shima K, Tanji J (1991) Reorganization of activity in the supplementary motor area associated with motor learning and functional recovery. Exp Brain Res 84:758–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benasich AA, Tallal P (1996) Auditory temporal processing thresholds, habituation, and recognition memory over the first year. Infant behav Develop 19:339–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bishop DV (1992) The underlying nature of specific language impairment. J Child Psychol Psychiat Allied Discip 33:3–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buonomano D, Merzenich MM (1998) Cortical plasticity: from synapses to maps. Ann Rev Neurosci 21:149–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cruikshank SJ, Weinberger NM (1996) Evidence for the Hebbian hypothesis in experience-dependent physiological plasticity of neocortex: a critical review. Brain Res Rev 22:191–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deiber MP, Wise SP, Honda M, Catalan MJ, Grafman J, Hallett M (1997) Frontal and parietal networks for conditional motor learning: a positron emission tomography study. J Neurophysiol 78:977–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Edelman GM, Finkel LM (1984) Neuronal group selection in the cerebral cortex. In: Edelman GM, Gall WE, Cohen WM (eds.) Dynamic aspects of neocortical function. Wiley, New York, pp 653–695Google Scholar
  10. Elbert T, Pantev C, Wienbruch C, Rockstroh B, Taub E (1995) Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science 270:305–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farmer ME, Klein R (1995) The evidence for a temporal processing deficit linked to dyslexia: a review. Psychonom Bull Rev 2:460–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gilbert CD, Das A, Ito M, Kapadia MK, Westheimer G (1996) Cortical dynamics and visual perception. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 61:105–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldman R, Fristoe M, Woodcock RW (1970) Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock test and auditory discrimination. Circle Pines, MN, American Guidance Service IncGoogle Scholar
  14. Hebb DB (1949) Organization of behavior. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Ivry RB (1996) The representation of temporal information in perception and motor control. Curr Opin Neurobiol 6:851–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM, Ochs MT, Allard T, Guic RI (1990) Functional reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in adult owl monkeys after behaviorally controlled tactile stimulation. J Neurophysiol 63:82–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kami A, Sagi D (1991). Where practice makes perfect in texture discrimination: evidence for primary visual cortical plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:4966–4970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kami A, Sagi D (1993) The time course of learning a visual skill. Nature 365:250–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kami A, Meyer G, Jezzard P, Adams MM, Turner R, Ungerleider LG (1995) Functional MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticity during motor skill learning. Nature 377:155–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kilgard M, Merzenich MM (1998) Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity. Science 279:1714–1718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Merzenich MM, DeCharms RC (1996) Neural representations, experience and change. In: Llinas R, Churchland P (eds.) The mind-brain continuum, MIT Press, Boston, pp. 61–81Google Scholar
  22. Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM (1994) Cortical representation of learned behaviors. In: Anderson, P, Hvalby O, Paulsen O, Hökfelt B (eds.) Memory concepts. Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp 437–450Google Scholar
  23. Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM (1995) Cortical plasticity, learning and learning dysfunction. In: Julesz B, Kovacs I (eds.) Maturational windows and adult cortical plasticity. Addison-Wesley, pp 247–272Google Scholar
  24. Merzenich MM, Sameshima K (1993) Cortical plasticity and memory. Curr Opin Neurobiol 3:187–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM, Middlebrooks JC (1984) Observations and hypotheses on special organization features of the central auditory nervous system. In: Edelman GM, Gall WE, Cowan WM (eds.) Dynamic aspects of neocortical function. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Merzenich MM, Grajski KA, Jenkins WM, Recanzone GH, Peterson B (1991 a) Functional cortical plasticity. Cortical network origins of representational changes. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 55:873–887, 1991Google Scholar
  27. Merzenich MM, Recanzone GH, Jenkins WM (1991 b) How the brain functionally rewires itself. In: Arbib M, Robinson JA (eds.) Natural and artificial parallel computations. MIT Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Merzenich MM, Schreiner C, Jenkins W, Wang X (1993) Neural mechanisms underlying temporal integration, segmentation, and input sequence representation: Some implications for the origin of learning disabilities. Ann NY Acad Sci 682:1–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Merzenich MM, Spengler F, Byl N, Wang X, Jenkins W (1996 a) Representational plasticity underlying learning; contributions to the origins and expressions of neurobehavioral disabilities. In: Ono T, McNaughton BL, Molotchnikoff S, Rolls ET, Nishijo H (eds.) Perception, memory and emotion: frontiers in neuroscience. Pergamon, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Merzenich MM, Wright B, Jenkins W, Xerri C, Byl N, Miller S, Tallal P (1996 b) Cortical plasticity underlying perceptual, motor and cognitive skill development: implications for neurorehabilitation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 61:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Merzenich M, Jenkins W, Johnston P, Schreiner C, Miller SL, Tallal P (1996 c) Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training. Science 271:77–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Merzenich MM, Miller S, Jenkins W, Sauners G, Protopapas A, Peterson B, Tallal P (1998) Amelioration of the acoustic reception and speech reception deficits underlying language-based learning impairments. In: Euler CV (ed.) Basic neural mechanisms in cognition and language. Amsterdam, ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  33. Mitz AR, Godschalk M, Wise SP (1991) Learning-dependent neuronal activity in the premotor cortex: activity during the acquisition of conditional motor associations. J Neurosci 11:1855–1872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Nagarajan SS, Wang X, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE, Johnston PA, Jenkins WM, Miller SL and Tallal P (1998) Speech modification algorithms used for training language-learning impaired children (LLIs) IEEE Trans Rehab Eng, in pressGoogle Scholar
  35. Nagarajan SS, Blake DT, Wright BA, Byl N, Merzenich MM (1998 b) Practice-related improvements in somatosensory interval discrimination is temporally specific but generalizes across skin location, hemisphere and modality. J Neurosci, 18:1559–1570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Newcomer PL, Hammill DD (1988) Test of language development primary, Second Edition. Austin, TX, Pro-EdGoogle Scholar
  37. Nudo RJ, Milliken GW, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM (1996) Use-dependent alterations of movement representations in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys. J Neurosci 16:785–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Pascual-Leone A, Wassermann EM, Sadato N, Hallett M (1995) The role of reading activity on the modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand in Braille readers. Ann Neurol 38:910–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pascual-Leone A, Wassermann EM, Grafman J, Hallett M (1996) The role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in implicit procedural learning. Exp Brain Res 107:479–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pavlov IP (1927) Conditioned reflexes. An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Protopapas A, Ahissar M, Merzenich MM (1997) Auditory processing deficits in adults with a history of reading difficulties. Neurosci Abstr 23:491Google Scholar
  42. Recanzone GH, Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM, Grajski KA, Dinse HA (1992 a) Topographic reorganization of the hand representational zone in cortical area 3 b paralleling improvements in frequency discrimination performance. J Neurophysiol 67:1031–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Recanzone GH, Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM (1992 b) Frequency discrimination training engaging a restricted skin surface results in an emergence of a cutaneous response zone in cortical area 3 a. J Neurophysiol 67:1057–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Recanzone GM, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CS (1992 c) Changes in the distributed temporal response properties of SI cortical neurons reflect improvements in performance on a temporally-based tactile discrimination task. J Neurophysiol 67:1071–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Recanzone GH, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM (1993) Plasiticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. J Neurosci 13:87–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Semel EM, Wiig EH, Secord WA (1995) Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals, Third Edition, San Antonio, TX, The Psychological CorporationGoogle Scholar
  47. Tallal P, Piercy M (1973) Defects of non-verbal auditory perception in children with developmental aphasia. Nature 241:468–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tallal P, Piercy M (1974) Developmental aphasia: rate of auditory processing and selective impairment of consonant perception. Neuropsychologia 12:83–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tallal P, Piercy M (1975) Developmental aphasia: the perception of brief vowels and extended stop consonants. Neuropsychologia 13:69–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tallal P, Miller S, Fitch RH (1993) Neurobiological basis of speech: a case for the preeminence of temporal processing. Ann NY Acad Sci 682:27–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tallal P, Miller SL, Bedi G, Byma G, Wang X, Nagarajan SS, Schreiner C, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM (1996) Language comprehension in language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified speech. Science 271:81–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang X, Merzenich MM, Sameshima K, Jenkins WM (1995) Remodelling of hand representation in adult cortex determined by timing of tactile stimulation. Nature 378:71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weinberger NM (1995) Dynamic regulation of receptive fields and maps in the adult sensory cortex. Ann Rev Neurosci 18:129–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. de Wierdt (1989) Spectral processing deficit in dyslexic children. Appl Psychol 9:163–174Google Scholar
  55. Wright BA, Lombardino LJ, King WM, Puranik CS, Leonard CM, Merzenich MM (1997 a) Deficits in auditory temporal and spectral processing in language-impaired children. Nature 387:176–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wright BA, Buonomano DV, Mahncke HW, Merzenich MM (1997 b) Learning and generalization of auditory temporal-interval discrimination in humans. J Neurosci 17:3956–3963PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Keck Center for Integrative NeurosciencesUniversity of California at San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Center for Molecular and Behavioral NeuroscienceRutgers UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Scientific Learning CorporationUSA

Personalised recommendations