Advertisement

Racial Differences in the Incidence, Behavior, and Management of Tumors of the Genitourinary Tract

  • O. E. StreeterJr.
  • M. RoachIII
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

“Every aspect of American society has been affected by racial discrimination and segregation. Cancer has been no exception.” These are the opening lines of the introduction to Minorities and Cancer (Organ 1989), a compilation of articles from the first Biennial Symposium on Minorities and Cancer held in Houston, Texas during the third week of April 1987, which by American Presidential Resolution is “National Minority Cancer Awareness Week.” It is in this context that we will attempt to clarify the role of race in the behavior and management of prostate, bladder, renal, and testicular cancers, which account for the vast majority of genitourinary tumors.

Keywords

Prostate Cancer Bladder Cancer Sickle Cell Anemia Testicular Cancer Androgen Receptor Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ACS (ed) (1997) Cancer facts and figures-1997. Atlanta,American Cancer Society, Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Austin JP, Convery K (1993) Age-race interaction in prostatic adenocarcinoma treated with external beam irradiation. Am J Clin Oncol 16: 140–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin JP, Aziz H, Potters L, et al. (1990) Diminished survival of young blacks with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Am J Clin Oncol 13: 465–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Axtell LM, Myers MH (1978) Contrast in survival of black and white cancer patients, 1960–1973. J Natl Cancer Inst 60: 1209–1215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayanian JZ, Kohler BA (1993) The relation between health insurance coverage and clinical outcomes among women with breast cancer. N Engl J Med 329: 326–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aziz H, Rotman M, Thelmo W (1988) Radiation-treated carcinoma of the prostate. Am J Clin Oncol 11: 166–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Babior BM, Stossel TP (1984) Hematology: a pathophysiological approach. Churchill Livingstone, New York Begley S (1995) Three is not enough. Newsweek 125: 67–69Google Scholar
  8. Begley S. (1995) Three is not enough. Newsweek 125:67–69Google Scholar
  9. Blout WJ, Fraumeni JF Jr. (1979) Geographic patterns of renal cancer in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 63: 363–366Google Scholar
  10. Bosl GJ, Motzer RJ (1997) Testicular germ-cell cancer. A review article. N Engl J Med 337: 242–253Google Scholar
  11. Braun MM, Helzlsouer KJ, Hollis BW (1995) Prostate cancer and prediagnostic levels of serum vitamin D metabolites (Maryland, United States ). Cancer Causes Control 6: 235–239Google Scholar
  12. Carter BS, Bova GS, Beaty TH, Steinberg GD, Childs B, Isaccs WB, Walsh PC (1993) Hereditary prostate cancer: epidemiologic and clinical features. J Urol 150: 797–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cavalli-Sforza LL (1991) Genes, peoples and languages. Sci Am 11: 104–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Corder EH, Guess HA, Hulka BS, et al. (1993) Vitamin D and prostate cancer: a prediagnostic study with stored sera [see comments]. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2: 467–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Corder EH, Friedman GD, Vogelman JH, Orentreich N (1995) Seasonal variation in vitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein, and dehydroepiandrosterone: risk of prostate cancer in black and white men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4: 655–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Coughlin SS, Neaton JD, Sengupta A (1996) Cigarette smoking as a predictor of death from prostate cancer in 348 874 men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Epidemiol 143: 1002–1006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Crawford ED, Blumenstein BA, Goodman PJ (1990) Leuprolide with and without flutamide in advanced prostate cancer. Cancer 66: 1039–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dale W, Vijayakumar S, Lawlor EF, Merrell K (1996) Prostate cancer, race, and socioeconomic status: inadequate adjustment for social factors in assessing racial differences. Prostate 29: 271–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daniels JL, Stutzman RE, McLeod DG (1981) A comparison of testicular tumors in black and white patients. J Urol 125: 341–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. David RJ, Collins JW (1997) Differing birth weight among infants of U.S. born blacks, African-born blacks and U.S.- born whites. N Engl J Med 337: 1209–1214Google Scholar
  21. Dayal HH, Chiu C (1982) Factors associated with racial differences in survival for prostatic carcinoma. J Chron Dis 35: 553–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dayal H, Kinman J (1983) Epidemiology of kidney cancer. Semin Oncol 10: 366–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Demark–Wahnefried W, Strigo T, Catoe K, Conaway M, Brunetti M, Rimer BK, Robertson CN (1995) Knowledge, beliefs, and prior screening behavior among blacks and whites reporting for prostate cancer screening. Urology 46: 346–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doll J A, Suarez BK, Donis-Keller H (1996) Association between prostate cancer in black Americans and an allele of the PADPRP pseudogene locus on chromosome 13 [letter]. Am J Hum Genet 58: 425–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. El–Masri WS, Fellows G (1981) Bladder cancer after spinal cord injury. Incidence, presentation, histology and prognosis compared with bladder cancer in the non-paralyzed population. Paraplegia 19: 265–270Google Scholar
  26. Epstein JI, Paull G, Eggleston JC, Walsh PC (1986) Prognosis of untreated stage A1 prostatic carcinoma: a study of 94 cases with extended followup. J Urol 136: 837–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Foster HW Jr. (1997) The enigma of low birth weight and race. N Engl J Med 337: 1232–1233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Foster HW Jr., Thomas DJ, Semenya KA (1993) Low birthweight in African Americans: does intergenerational well-being improve outcome? J Natl Med Assoc 85: 516–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fowler JE Jr., Terrell F (1996) Survival in blacks and whites after treatment for localized prostate cancer. J Urol 156: 133–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Franklin JH, Moss A A (1994) From slavery to freedom. McGraw-Hill, New York Gelehrter TD, Collins FS (1990) Principles of medical genetics.Google Scholar
  31. Gelehrter TD, Collins FS (1990) Principles of medical genetics.Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  32. Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC (1995) Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 87: 1767–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Krithivas K, et al. (1997) The CAG repeat within the androgen receptor gene and its relationship to prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 3320–3323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Godley PA, Campbell MK, Miller C, Gallagher P, Martinson FE, Mohler JL, Sandler RS (1996) Correlation between biomarkers of omega-3 fatty acid consumption and questionnaire data in African American and Caucasian United States males with and without prostatic carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5: 115–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Groeneveld AE, Marszalek W, Heyns CF (1996) Bladder cancer in various population groups in the greater Durban area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Br J Urol 78: 205–208Google Scholar
  36. Guralnik DB (ed) (1984) Webster’s New World dictionary. New York, Simon and Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Hakimi JM, Schoenberg MP, Rondinelli RH, Piantadosi S, Barrack ER (1997) Androgen receptor variants with short glutamine or glycine repeats may identify unique sub– populations of men with prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 3: 1599–1608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hankey BF, Myers MH (1987) Black/white differences in bladder cancer patient survival. J Chron Dis 40: 65–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harris RE, Chen–Backlund J–Y, Wynder EL (1990) Cancers of the urinary bladder in blacks and whites. A case–control study. Cancer 66: 2673–2680Google Scholar
  40. Hart KB, Porter AT, Reddy S, Pontes JE, Forman JD (1996) The relationship of race to the presentation and natural history of prostate cancer. Proc ASCO 15: 247Google Scholar
  41. Hiatt RA, Armstrong MA, Klatsky AL, Sidney S (1994) Alcohol consumption, smoking, and other risk factors and prostate cancer in a large health plan cohort in California. Cancer Causes Control 5: 66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Howard J, Hankey BF, Greenber RS, Austin DF, Correa P, Chen VW, Durako S (1992) A collaborative study of differences in the survival rates of black patients and white patients with cancer. Cancer 69: 2349–2360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hsing AW, Comstock GW (1993) Serological precursors of cancer: serum hormones and risk of subsequent prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2: 27–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, et al. (1990) Diet, tobacco use, and fatal prostate cancer: results from the Lutheran Brother–hood cohort study. Cancer Res 50: 6836–6840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hussain F, Aziz H, Macchia R, Avitable M, Rotman M (1992) High grade adenocarcinoma of prostate in smokers of ethnic minority groups and Caribbean Island Immigrants. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 24: 451–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ingles SA, Haile RW, et al. (1997) Strength of linkage disequilibrium between two vitamin D receptor markers in five ethnic groups: implications for association studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6: 93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ingram VM (1956) A specific chemical difference between the globins of normal human and sickle cell anemia hemoglo–bin. Nature 178: 792–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Irvine RA, Yu MC, Ross RK, Coetzee GA (1995) The CAG and GGC microsatellites of the androgen receptor gene are in linkage disequilibrium in men with prostate cancer. Cancer Res 55: 1937–1940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kennealey GT, Vogelzang NJ, Soloway MS, et al. (1996) Analysis of time to treatment failure by extent of disease and race in a randomized, multicenter trial comparing Casodex (bicalutamide) (C) with Eulexin (flutamide) ( E), each combined with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. Proc ASCO 15: 251Google Scholar
  50. Kim JA, Kuban DA, El-Mahdi EM, Schellhammer PF (1995) Carcinoma of the prostate: race as a prognostic indicator in definitive radiation therapy. Radiology 194: 545–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lackie JM, Dow JAT (eds) (1995) The dictionary of cell biology. Academic Press, San Diego Lau Y-L, Chan L-C, Chan Y-Y, Ha S-Y, Yeung C-Y, Waye JS, Chui DHK (1997) Prevalence and genotypes of alpha and P-thalassemia carriers in Hong Kong-implications for population screening. N Engl J Med 336: 1298–1301Google Scholar
  52. Lau Y-L, Chan L-C, Chan Y-Y, Ha S-Y, Yeung C-y, Waye JS, Chui DHK (1997) Prevalence and genotypes of alpha and β-thalassemia carriers in Hongkon - Implications for population screnning. N Engl J Med 336: 129–1301Google Scholar
  53. Lawton CA, Cantrell JE, Derus SW, Murray KJ, Byhardt RW, Wilson JF (1994) Prostate cancer: are racial differences in clinical stage and survival explained by differences in symptoms? Radiology 192: 37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Levine RL, Wilchinsky M (1979) Adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a comparison of the disease in blacks versus whites. J Urol 121: 761–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lyn D, Cherney BW, Lalande M, et al. (1993) A duplicated region is responsible for the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase polymorphism, on chromosome 13, associated with a pre-disposition to cancer. Am J Hum Genet 52: 124–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Mallin K, Rubin M, Joo E (1989) Occupational cancer mortality in Illinois white and black males, 1979–1984, for seven cancer sites. Am J Ind Med 699–717Google Scholar
  57. Matson MA, Cohen EP (1990) Acquired cystic kidney disease: occurrence, prevalence, and renal cancers. Medicine 69: 217–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Matzkin H, Soloway MS (1993) Cigarette smoking: a review of possible associations with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Prostate 22: 277–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mayer WJ, McWhorter WP (1989) Black/white differences in non-treatment of bladder cancer patients and implications for survival. Am J Public Health 79: 772–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mettlin C, Murphy GP, Menck H (1994) Trends in treatment of localized prostate cancer by radical prostatectomy: observations from the Commission on Cancer National Cancer Database, 1985–1990. Urology 43: 488–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Monroe KR, Yu MC, Kolonel LN, Coetzee GA, Wilkens LR, Ross RK, Henderson BE (1995) Evidence of an X-linked or recessive genetic component to prostate cancer risk [see comments]. Nat Med 1: 827–829PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moul JW, Schanne FJ, Thompson IM, et al. (1994) Testicular cancer in blacks. A multicenter experience. Cancer 73: 388–393Google Scholar
  63. Moul JW, Connelly RR, Harris JA, Mooheyhan RE, Srivastava SK, McLeod DG (1995) Prostate specific antigen (PSA) values at initial prostate cancer diagnosis are higher in African-American men: multivariable analysis of 541 patients. Proceedings of the American Urological Association 153: 417AGoogle Scholar
  64. Moul JW, Douglas TH, McCarthy WF, McLeod DG (1996) Black race is an adverse prognostic factor for prostate cancer recurrence following radical prostatectomy in an equal access health care setting [see comments]. J Urol 155: 1667–1673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Murphy GP (1981) Prostate cancer today. Urology 17:1–3 Myers RE, Wolf TA, Balsheim AW, Ross EA, Chodak GW (1994) Receptivity of African American men to prostate cancer screening. Urology 43: 480–487Google Scholar
  66. Myers RE, Wolf TA, Balshein AW, Ross EA, Chodak GW (1994) Receptivity of African American men to prostate cancer screening. Urology 43:480–487Google Scholar
  67. Natarajan N, Murphy GP, Mettlin C (1989) Prostate cancer in blacks: an update from the American College of Surgeons’ Patterns of Care Studies. J Surg Oncol 40: 232–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nautiyal J, Vaida F, Awan A, Weichselbaum, Vijayakumar S (1996) The impact of race on biochemical outcome in patients receiving irradiation for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Biol Phys 36 (Suppl): 305Google Scholar
  69. Nichols CR, Heerema NA, Palmer C, Loehrer PJ, Williams SD, Einhorn LH (1987) Klinefelter’s syndrome associated with mediastinal germ cell neoplasms. J Clin Oncol 5: 1290–1294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Optenberg SA, Thompson IM, Friedrichs P, Wojcik B, Stein CR, Kramer B (1995) Race, treatment, and long-term survival from prostate cancer in an equal-access medical care delivery system. JAMA 274: 1599–1605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Organ C Jr. (1989) Introduction. In: Jones LL (ed) Minorities and cancer. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg Pace BP, Sullivan-Fowler M (1997) “Cancer houses” and cancer areas: JAMA 100 years ago, January 30, 1987. JAMA 277: 1420Google Scholar
  72. Pace BP, Sullivan-Fowler M (1997) “Cancer houses” and cancer areas: JAMA 100 years ago, January 30, 1987. JAMA 277:1420Google Scholar
  73. Page WF, Kuntz AJ (1980) Racial and socioeconomic factors in cancer survival. Cancer 45: 1029–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Parker SL, Tong T, Bolden S, Wingo PA (1997) Cancer statistics, 1997. CA Cancer J Clin 47: 5–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Parkin DM, Muir CS, Whelan SL, Gao YT, Ferlay J, Powell J (eds) (1992) Cancer incidence in five continents. International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
  76. Pauling L, Itano HA, Singer SJ, Wells IC (1949) Sickle cell anemia: a molecular disease. Science 110: 543–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Perez CA, Garcia D, Simpson JR, Zivnuska F, Lockett MA (1989) Factors influencing outcome of definitive radiotherapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Radiother Oncol 16: 1–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Persad R, Fleming C, Chern HD, et al. (1997) Environmental procarcinogen hypothesis of bladder cancer in humans: dapsone hydroxylation as a susceptibility risk factor for aggressive bladder cancer. Urol Oncol 3: 18–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pienta KJ, Demers R, Hoff M, Kau TY, Montie JE, Severson RK (1995) Effect of age and race on the survival of men with prostate cancer in the Metropolitan Detroit tricounty area, 1973 to 1987. Urology 45:93–101; discussion 101–102Google Scholar
  80. Powell I, Gelfand D, Heilbrun L, Parzuchowski J, Franklin A (1995) Results of early detection of prostate cancer in 1100 African American men. Deed program update. Proceedings of the American Urological Association 153: 417AGoogle Scholar
  81. Reichardt JK, Makridakis N, Henderson BE, Yu MC, Pike MC, Ross RK (1995) Genetic variability of the human SRD5A2 gene: implications for prostate cancer risk. Cancer Res 55: 3973–3975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Reichman ME, Hayes RB, Ziegler RG, Schatzkin A, Taylor PR, Kahle LL, Fraumeni JF Jr. (1990) Serum vitamin A and subsequent development of prostate cancer in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Cancer Res 50: 2311–2315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ries LAG, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Harras A, Edwards BK (eds) (1997) SEER cancer statistics review, 1973–1994. National Cancer Institute, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  84. Roach M III (1998) Is race an independent prognostic factor for survival from prostate cancer? J Natl Med Assoc (in press)Google Scholar
  85. Roach M III, Alexander M (1995) The prognostic significance of race and survival from breast cancer: a model for assessing the reliability of reported survival differences. J Natl Med Assoc 87: 214–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Roach M III, Krall J, Keller JW, et al. (1992) The prognostic significance of race and survival from prostate cancer based on patients irradiated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocols (1976–1985). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 24: 441–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Roach M, Lu J, et al. (1997) Long-term survival in 1500 men treated for prostate cancer with radiotherapy alone (XRT): based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocols 7706, 7506, 8531, and 8610. American Urological Association (Abstract submitted). JAMA (Pending Submission)Google Scholar
  88. Rodriguez C, Tatham LM, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Health CW Jr. (1997) Smoking and fatal prostate cancer in a large cohort of adult men. Am J Epidemiol 145: 466–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ross RK, Coetzee GA (1996) The epidemiology and etiology of prostate cancer. In: Petrovich Z, Baert L, Brady LW (eds) Carcinoma of the prostate. Innovations in management. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ross RK, Bernstein L, Lobo RA (1992) 5-Alpha-reductase activity and risk of prostate cancer among Japanese and US white and black males. Lancet 339: 887–889Google Scholar
  91. Ross RK, Feigelson HS, Yu MC, Coetzee GA, Reichardt JKV, Henderson BE (1997) Genetic susceptibility to cancer from exogenous and endogenous exposures. In: Fortner JG, Sharp PA (eds) Accomplishments in cancer research 1996. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 208–220Google Scholar
  92. Rotimi C, Austin H, Delzell E, Day C, Macaluso M, Honda Y (1993) Retrospective follow-up study of foundry and engine plant workers. Am J Ind Med 24: 485–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schmidt L, Li F, Brown RS (1995) Mechanism of tumorigenesis of renal carcinomas associated with the constitutional chromosome 3;8 translocation. Cancer J Sci Am 1: 191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Silverberg E (1980) Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 30:23– 38Google Scholar
  95. Smith DC, Trump DL, Vogelzang NJ, Redman BG, Flaherty LE, Pienta KJ (1996) The effect of African American race on response and survival in phase II trials of patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Proc ASCO 15 (Suppl): 242Google Scholar
  96. Steele R, Lees REM, Kraus AS, Rao C (1971) Sexual factors in the epidemiology of cancer of the prostate. J Chron Dis 24: 29–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Taylor JA, Hirvonen A, Watson M, Pittman G, Mohler JL, Bell DA (1996) Association of prostate cancer with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism. Cancer Res 56: 4108–4110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Vijayakumar S, Weichselbaum R, Vaida F, Hellman S (1996) Prostate-specific antigen levels in African-Americans correlate with insurance status as an indicator of socioeconomic status. Cancer J Sci Am 2: 225–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Vizcaino AP, Parkin DM, Boffetta P, Skinnerq MEG (1994) Bladder cancer: epidemiology and risk factors in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Cancer Causes Control 5: 517–522Google Scholar
  100. Vogelzang NJ, Chodak GW, Soloway MS, et al. (1995) Goserelin versus orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer: final results of a randomized trial. Zoladex Prostate Study Group. Urology 46: 220–226Google Scholar
  101. Walker AR, Walker BF, Segal I (1993) Cancer patterns in three African populations compared with the United States black population. Eur J Cancer Prev 2: 313–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Warren W, Biggs PJ, El–Baz M, Ghoneim MA, Stratton MR, Venitt S (1995) Mutations in the/?53 gene in schistosomal bladder cancer: a study of 92 tumours from Egyptian patients and a comparison between mutational spectra from schistosomal and non-schistosomal urothelial tumours. Carcinogenesis 16: 1181–1189Google Scholar
  103. Weinberger M, Williams B, Davis T, Mata JA, Eastham J, Venable DD, Sartor O (1996) Low literacy scores predict advanced stage prostate cancer presentation in African-American men. Am Urol Assoc 155: 606AGoogle Scholar
  104. Wolpoff M, Caspari R (1997) Race and human evolution. Simon and Schuster, New York Wu AH, Whittemore AS, Kolonel LN, et al. (1995) Serum androgens and sex hormone-binding globulins in relation to lifestyle factors in older African-American, white, and Asian men in the United States and Canada. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4: 735–741Google Scholar
  105. Wu Ah, Whittemore As, Kolonel LN, et al. (1995) Serum androgens and sex hormone-binding globulins in relation to lifestyle factors in older African-American, white, and Asian men in the United States and Canada. Cancer Epidemiol biomarkers Prev 4:735–741Google Scholar
  106. Zhang ZF, Sarkis AS, Cordon CC, et al. (1994) Tobacco smoking, occupation, and p53 nuclear overexpression in early stage bladder cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3: 19–24PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. E. StreeterJr.
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. RoachIII
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Southern California School of MedicineUSA
  2. 2.USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer CenterRadiation OncologyLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Mt. Zion Cancer CenterUniversity of California at San Francisco School of MedicineSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations