Pathology of Renal Cell Carcinoma

  • T. Roskams
  • B. Van Damme
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are clinically, histologically, and genetically a very heterogeneous group of tumors. This heterogeneity is a well-known complicating factor in the diagnosis. The histogenesis of RCC was controversial for a long time, especially in terms of the thesis originally expressed by Virchow and advocated by Grawitz that certain clear cell epithelial renal tumors are derived from ectopic adrenocortical elements (Grawitz 1883). This has led to the terms “hypernephroma,” “Grawitz tumor,” and “hypernephroid renal carcinoma.” Today, preference is given to renal tubular histogenesis, mainly on the basis of animal experiments with carcinogens and observation of prestages and early stages of epithelial renal tumors in human kidneys (Bannasch and Zerban 1990).


Renal Cell Carcinoma Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Renal Oncocytoma Renal Cell Tumor Clear Cell RCCs 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aizawa S, Kikuchi Y, Suzuki M, et al. (1987) Renal cell carcinoma of lower nephron origin. Acta Pathol Jpn 37: 567–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amin M, Corless C, Renshaw A, Tickoo S, Kubus J, Schultz D (1997) Papillary (chromophil) renal cell carcinoma: histomorphologic characteristics and evaluation of conventional pathologic prognostic parameters in 62 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 21: 621–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baer S, Ro J, Ordonez N, Maiese R, Loose J, Grignon D, Ayala A (1993) Sarcomatoid collecting duct carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of five cases. Hum Pathol 24: 1017–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bannasch P, Zerban H (1990) Animal models and renal carcinogenesis. In: Eble J (ed) Tumors and tumor-like conditions of the kidneys and ureters. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  5. Bannasch P, Schacht U, Storch E (1974) Morphogenese und Mikromorphologie epithelialer Nierentumoren bei Nitrosomorpholin-vergifteten Ratten. I. Induktion und Histologie der Tumoren. Z Krebsforsch 81: 311–331Google Scholar
  6. Bell E (1950) Renal diseases, 2nd edn. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonsib S, Lager DJ (1990) Chromophobe cell carcinoma: analysis of five cases. Am J Surg Pathol 14: 260–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng W, Farrow G, Zincke H (1991) The incidence of multicentricity in renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 146:1221– 1223Google Scholar
  9. Crotty T, Farrow G, Lieber M (1995) Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: clinicopathologic features of 50 cases. J Urol 154: 964–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dal Bianco M, Artibani W, Bassi P, et al. (1988) Prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol 15: 73–76Google Scholar
  11. Davis CJ, Mostofi F, Sesterhenn I, et al. (1991) Renal oncocytoma, clinicopathological study of 166 patients. J Urogenital Pathol 1: 41–52Google Scholar
  12. Delahunt B, Eble J (1997) Papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 105 tumors. Mod Pathol 10: 537–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. DeLong W, Sakr W, Grignon D (1996) Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: a comparative histochemical and immuno–histochemical study. J Urol Pathol 4: 1–8Google Scholar
  14. Durham J, Keohane M, Amin M (1996) Chromophobe renalGoogle Scholar
  15. cell carcinoma. Adv Anat Pathol 5:336–342Google Scholar
  16. Eble J (1990) Unusual renal tumors and tumor-like conditions. In: Eble J (ed) Tumors and tumor-like conditions of the kidneys and ureters. Churchill Livingstone, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Eble J (1996) Neoplasms of the kidney. In: Bostwick D, Eble J (eds) Urologie surgical pathology. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 82– 147Google Scholar
  18. Eble J, Hull M (1984) Morphologic features of renal oncocytoma: a light and electron microscopic study. Hum Pathol 15: 1054–1061PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eble J, Warfel K (1991) Early human renal cortical epithelial neoplasia. Mod Pathol 4: 45AGoogle Scholar
  20. Fleming S (1993) The impact of genetics on the classification of renal carcinoma. Histopathology 22: 89–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fleming S, Lewi H (1986) Collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney. Histopathology 10: 1131–1141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fuhrman S, Lasky L, Limas C (1982) Prognostic significance of morphologic parameters in renal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 6: 655–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gatalica Z, Kovatich A, Miettinen M (1995) Consistent expression of cytokeratin 7 in papillary renal-cell carcinoma. An immunohistochemical study in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. J Urol Pathol 3: 205–211Google Scholar
  24. Grawitz P (1883) Die sogenannten Lipomen der Nieren. Virchows Arch A 93: 39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hartman D, Davis CJ, Johns T, et al. (1986) Cystic renal cell carcinoma. Urology 28: 145–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hughson M, Hennigar G, McManus J (1980) Atypical cysts, acquired renal cystic disease and renal cell tumors in end stage dialysis kidneys. Lab Invest 42: 475–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hughson M, Johnson L, Silva F, Kovacs G (1993) Nonpapillary and papillary renal cell carcinoma: a cytogenetic and phenotypic study. Mod Pathol 6: 449–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kennedy S, Merino M, Linehan W, Roberts J, Robertson C (1990) Collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney. Hum Pathol 21: 449–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Klein M, Valensi Q (1976) Proximal tubular adenomas of kidney with so-called oncocytic features, a clinicopathologic study of 13 cases of a rarely reported neoplasm. Cancer 38: 9096–9104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kovacs G (1993) Molecular differential pathology of renal cell tumours. Histopathology 22: 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kovacs G, Kovacs A (1993) Parenchymal abnormalities associ¬ated with papillary renal cell tumors: a morphologic study. J Urol Pathol 1: 301–312Google Scholar
  32. Mancilla-Jimenez R, Stanley R, Blath R (1976) Papillary renal cell carcinoma, a clinical, radiologic, and pathologic study of 34 cases. Cancer 38: 2469–2480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Medeiros L, Gelb A, Weiss L (1988) Renal cell carcinoma: prognostic significance of morphologic parameters in 121 cases. Cancer 61: 1639–1651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Murad T, Komaiko W, Oyasu T, et al. (1991) Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 95: 633–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Murphy W, Beckwith J, Farrow K (1994) Tumors of the kidney, bladder, and related urinary structures. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  36. Oberling C, Riviere M, Hagueneau F (1960) Ultrastructure of the clear cells in renal carcinomas and its importance for the demonstration of their renal origin. Nature 186:402– 403Google Scholar
  37. Rumpelt H, Storkel S, Moll R, Scharfe T, Thoenes W (1991) Bellini duct carcinoma: further evidence for this rare variant of renal cell carcinoma. Histopathology 18:115– 122Google Scholar
  38. Seizinger B, Rouleau G, Ozelius L, et al. (1988) Von Hippel-Lindau disease maps to the region of chromosome 3 associated with renal cell carcinoma. Nature 332: 268–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Storkel S (1993) Karzinome und Onkozytome der Niere. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart Storkel S, Jacobi G (1989) Systematik, Histogenese und Prognose der Nierenzellkarzinome und des renalen Onkozytoms. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 73: 321–513Google Scholar
  40. Storkel S, van den Berg E (1995) Morphological classification of cancer. World J Urol 13: 153–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Storkel S, Pannen B, Thoenes W, et al. (1988) Intercalated cells as a probable source for the development of renal oncocytoma. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol 56: 185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Storkel S, Steart P, Drenckhahn D, Thoenes W (1989) The human chromophobe cell renal carcinoma: its probable relation to intercalated cells of the collecting duct. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol 56: 237–245Google Scholar
  43. Thoenes W, Storkel S, Rumpelt H-J (1985) Human chromophobe cell renal carcinoma. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol 48: 207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thoenes W, Storkel S, Rumpelt H (1986) Histopathology and classification of renal cell tumors (adenomas, oncocytomas and carcinomas). The basic cytological and histopatho-logical elements and their use for diagnostics. Pathol Res Pract 181: 125–143Google Scholar
  45. Thoenes W, Storkel S, Rumpelt H-J, et al. (1988) Chromophobe cell renal carcinoma and its variants: a report on 32 cases. J Pathol 155: 277–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thoenes W, Storkel S, Rumpelt H, Moll R (1990) Cytomorphological typing of renal cell carcinoma: a new approach. Eur Urol 18 (Suppl): 6–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. van den Berg E, van der Hout A, Oosterhuis J, et al. (1993) Cytogenetic analysis of epithelial renal cell tumors: relationship with a new histopathological classification. Int J Cancer 55: 223–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. van der Hout A, van den Berg E, van der Vlies P, et al. (1993) Loss of heterozygosity at the short arm of chromosome-3 in renal cell cancer correlates with the cytological tumour type. Int J Cancer 53: 353–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Warfel K, Eble J (1982) Renal oncocytomatosis. J Urol 127: 1179–1180PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Roskams
    • 1
  • B. Van Damme
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity Hospitals (K.U. Leuven)LeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations