Prognostic Factors: From Clinical Parameters to New Biological Markers

  • J. B. Sørensen
  • K. Østerlind
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

The current treatment results for lung cancer clearly call for improved therapy and also for careful selection of patients for the treatment options from which they are most likely to benefit. A detailed knowledge of prognostic factors, meaning variables with a well established relation to the prognosis, is important for achieving these goals. Any clinical trial must therefore include an assessment of the possible influence of such prognostic factors on the therapeutic result.

Keywords

Carbohydrate Codon Glutathione Sarcoma Stratification 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akoun GM, Scarna HM, Milleron BJ, Bénichou MP, Herman DP (1985) Serum neuron-specific enolase. A marker for disease extent and response to therapy for small-cell lung cancer. Chest 87:39–43.Google Scholar
  2. Alama A Constantini M Repetto L et al (1990) Thymidine labelling index as prognostic factor in resected non-small cell lung cancer. eur j cancer 26:622–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Albain KS, Crowley JJ, Leblanc M, Livingston RB (1990) Determinants of improved outcome in small-cell lung cancer: an analysis of the 2580-patient southwest oncology group data base. J Clin Oncol 8:1563–1574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Albain KS, Crowley JJ, Leblanne M, Livingston RB (1991) Survival determinants in extensive-stage non-small-cell lung cancer: the southwest oncology group experience. J Clin Oncol 9:1618–1626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Allan SG, Stewart ME, Love S, Cornbleet MA, Smyth JF, Leonard CF (1990) Prognosis at presentation of small cell carcinoma of the lung. Eur J Cancer 26:703–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Apolinario RM, van der Valk P, de Jong JS (1997) Prognostic value of the expression of p53, bcl-2 and bax oncoproteins, neovascularization in patients with radically resected non-small-cell lung cancer. J CLIN Oncol 15:2456–2466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Battifora H, Sorensen HR, Mehta P et al. (1992) tumor-associated antigen 43–9f is of prognostic value in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Cancer 70:1867–1872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berendsen HH, de Leij L, Poppema S et al. (1989) Clinical characterization of non-small-cell lung cancer tumors showing neuroendocrine differentiation features. J Clin Oncol 7:1614–1620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonomi P, Gale M, Rowland K et al. (1991) Pre-treatment prognostic factors in stage II non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving combined modality treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 20:247–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Buccheri G, Ferrigno D, Vola F (1993) Carcinomembryonic Antigen (CEA) tissue polypeptide antigen (tpa) and other prognostic indicators in squamoid cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 10:21–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buhr J, Berghaeuser KH, Gonner S et al. (1997) The prognostic significance of tumor cell detection in intraoperative pleural lavage and lung tissue cultures for patients with lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 113:683–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burke HB, Henson DE (1993) Criteria for prognostic factors and for an enhanced prognostic system. Cancer 72: 3131–3135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cangemi V, Volpino P, D’Andrea N et al. (1996) Lung cancer surgery in elderly patients. Tumori 82:237–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Carles J, Ariza A, Rosell R et al. (1996) Prognostic implications of P-glycoprotein, epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor alpha: immunohistochemical expression in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncol Rep 3: 787–791.Google Scholar
  15. Carney DN (1991) Lung cancer biology. Curr Opin Oncol 1991 3:288–296.Google Scholar
  16. Cerny T, Blair V, Anderson H, Bramwell V, Thatcher N (1987) Pretreatment prognostic factors and scoring system in 407 small-cell lung cancer patients. Int J Cancer 39:146–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chastang C, Lebeau B, Charpak Y, Decroix G (1985) Prognostic factors from a randomized clinical trial in resected lung cancer. Stat Med 4:279–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chiba I, Takahashi T, Nau MM et al. (1990) Mutations in the p53 gene are frequent in primary, resected non-small cell lung cancer. Oncogenes 5:1603–1610.Google Scholar
  19. Ciampi A, Lawless JF, McKinney SM, Singhai K (1988) Regression and recursive partition strategies in the analysis of medical survival data. J Clin Epidemiol 41:737–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cox DR (1972) Regression models and life-tables. JR Stat Soc 34:187–220.Google Scholar
  21. Dalquen P, Sauter G, Torhorst J et al. (1996) Nuclear p53 overexpression is an independent prognostic parameter in node-negative non-small cell lung carcinoma. J Pathol 178:53–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dearing MP, Steinberg SM, Phelps R, Anderson MJ, Mulshine JL, Ihde DC (1990) Outcome of patients with small-cell lung cancer: effect of changes in staging procedures and imaging technology on prognostic factors over 14 years. J Clin Oncol 6:1042–1049.Google Scholar
  23. Delaurier J, Brisson J, Cartier R et al. (1989) Carcinoma of the lung. Evaluation of satellite nodules as a factor influencing prognosis after resection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 97:504–512.Google Scholar
  24. Diez M, Torres A, Ortega L et al. (1993) Value of serum neuron-specific enolase in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncology 50:127–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dosaka-Akita H, Hu SX, Fujino M et al. (1997) Altered retinoblastoma protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer: its synergistic effects with altered ras and p53 protein status on prognosis. Cancer 79:1329–1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Drivsholm L, Østerlind K, Holst J (1994) Neuron specific enolase (NSE), pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (proGRP) and chromogranin A (chromA) are significant prognostic factors in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Lung Cancer 11:77.Google Scholar
  27. Ebina M, Steinberg S, Mulshine J, Linnoila I (1994) Relation¬ship of p53 overexpression and upregulation of proliferat¬ing cell nuclear antigen with the clinical course of non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 54:2496–2503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Einhorn LE, Loehrer PJ, Williams SD et al. (1986) Random prospective study of vindesine versus vendesine plus high-dose cisplatin versus vendesine plus cisplatin plus mitomycin C in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 4:1037–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Espinosa E, Feliu J, Zamora P et al. (1995) Serum albumin and other prognostic factors related to response and survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 12:67–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Esposito V, Baldi A, De Luca et al. (1997) Prognostic value of p53 in non-small cell lung cancer: relationships with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cigarette smoking. Hum Pathol 28:233–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Evans WK, Nixon DW, Daly JM et al. (1987) A randomized study of oral nutritional support versus ad lib nutritional intake during chemotherapy for advanced colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 5:113–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Feinstein AR, Sosin DM, Wells CK (1985) The Will Rogers phenomenon. Stage migration and new diagnostic techniques as a source of misleading statistics for survival in cancer. N Engl J Med 312:1604–1608.Google Scholar
  33. Feld R, Abratt R, Graziano S et al. (1997) Pretreatment minimal staging and prognostic factors for non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 17:3–10.Google Scholar
  34. Finkelstein DM, Ettinger DS, Ruckdeschel JC (1986) Long-term survivors in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 4:702–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fischer JR, Schindel M, Bülzebruck H, Lahm H, Krammer PH, Drings P (1997) Decrease of interleukin-2 secretion is a new independent prognostic factor associated with poor survival in patients with small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol 8:57–461.Google Scholar
  36. Fontanini G, Macchiarini P, Pepe S et al. (1992) The expression of profilerating cell nuclear antigen in paraffin sections of peripheral, node-negative non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer 70:1520–1527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fujino M, Dosaka-Akita H, Harada M et al. (1995) Prognostic significance of p53 and ras p21 expression in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer 76:2457–2463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fukuoka M, Masuda N, Matsui K, Makise Y, Takada M, Negoro S, Sakai N, Kusunoki Y, Kudoh S, Ryu S, Takifuji N (1990) Combination chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy in small cell lung cancer. An analysis of a 5-year follow-up. Cancer 65:1678–1684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gail MH, Eagan RT, Feld R et al. (1984) Prognostic factors in patients with resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer. A report from the Lung Cancer Study Group. Cancer 54:1803–1813.Google Scholar
  40. Gasinska A, Kolodziejski L, Biesaga B (1997) Tumour cell kinetics as prognostic factor in surgically-treated-non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 18:159–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Giatromanolaki A, Konkourakist M, O’Byrnet K et al. (1996) Prognostic value of angiogenesis in operable non-small cell lung cancer. J Pathol 179:80–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Goto I, Yoneda S, Yamamoto M, Kawajiri K (1996) Prognostic significance of germ line polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and glutathione S-transferase genes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 56:3725–3730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Graham MV, Geitz LM, Bychardt R et al. (1992) Comparison of prognostic factors and survival among black patients and white patients treated with irradiation for non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 84:1731–1735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Graziano S (1997) Non-small cell lung cancer: clinical value of new biological predictors. Lung Cancer 17:37–58.Google Scholar
  45. Graziano SL, Mazid R, Newman N et al. (1989) The use of neuroendocrine immunoperoxidase markers to predict chemotherapy response in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 7:1398–1406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gronowitz JS, Bergström R, Nôu E, Påhlman S, Brodin O, Nilsson S, Källander, CFR (1990) Clinical and serologic markers of stage and prognosis in small cell lung cancer. A multivariate analysis. Cancer 66:722–732.Google Scholar
  47. Hannisdal E, Engan T (1991) Blood analyses and survival in symptom- and survey-detected lung cancer patients. J Intern Med 229:337–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Harada M, Dosaka-Akita H, Miyamoto H, Kuzumaki N, Kawakami Y (1992) Prognostic significance of the expres¬sion of ras oncogene product in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer 69:72–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Harding M, McAllister J, Hulks G, Vernon D, Monie R, Paul J, Kaye SB (1990) Neurone specific enolase (NSE) in small cell lung cancer: a tumour marker of prognostic significance? Br J Cancer 61:605–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Harpole DH Jr, Herndon JE, Young WG Jr et al. (1995) Stage I non-small cell lung cancer: a multivariate analysis of treat¬ment methods and patterns of recurrence. Cancer 76: 787–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Harpole DH Jr, Richards WG, Herndon JE II, Sugarbaker DJ (1996) Angionesis and molecular biologic substaging in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thoracic Surg 61:1470–1476.Google Scholar
  52. Hespanhol V, Queiroga H, Magalhaes A et al. (1995) Survival predictors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 13:253–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Higashiyama M, Doi O, Kodama K et al. (1997a) Bcl-2 oncoprotein in surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer: possibly favorable prognostic factor in association with low incidence of distant metastasis. J Surg Oncol 64:48–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Higashiyama M, Doi O, Kodama K et al. (1997b) Immunohistochemically detected expression of motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) in lung adenocarcinoma and its relation to prognosis. Int J Cancer 74:205–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hilsenbeck SG, Raub WA Jr, Sridhar KS (1993) Prognostic factors in lung cancer based on multivariate analysis. Am J Clin Oncol 16:301–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Horio Y, Takahashi T, Kuroishi T et al. (1993) Prognostic significance of p53 mutations and 3p deletions in primary resected non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 53:1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ihde DC, Makuch RW, Carney DN, Bunn PA, Cohen MH, Matthews MJ, Minna JD (1981) Prognostic implications of stage of disease and sites of metastases in patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung treated with intensive combination chemotherapy. Am Rev Respir Dis 123: 500–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ischinose Y, Hara N, Ohta M et al. (1993) Is T factor of the TNM staging system a predominant prognostic factor in pathologic stage I non-small-cell lung cancer? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 106:90–94.Google Scholar
  59. Ischinose Y, Yano T, Asoh H et al. (1995) Prognostic factors obtained by pathologic examination in completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 110:601–605.Google Scholar
  60. Isobe H, Miyamoto H, Shimizi T et al. (1990) Prognostic and therapeutic significance of the flow cytometric nuclear DNA content in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer 65:1391–1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jacoulet P, Depierre A, Moro D, Riviere A, Milleron B, Quoix E, Ranfaing E, Anthoine D, Lafitte JJ, Lebeau B, Kleisbauer JP, Massin F, Fournel P, Zaegel M, Leclerc JP, Gamier G, Brambilla E, Capron F (1997) Long-term survivors of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC): a French multicenter study. Ann Oncol 8:1009–1014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jaques GJ, Bepler G, Holle R, Wolf M (1988) Prognostic value of pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen, neuron-s pecific enolase, and creatine kinase-BB levels in sera of patients with small cell lung cancer. Cancer 62:125–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jaques GJ, Auerbach B, Pritsch M, Wolf M, Madrey N, Havemann K (1993) Evaluation of Serum neural cell adhe¬sion molecule as a new tumor marker in small cell lung cancer. Cancer 72:418–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jeremic B, Shibamoto Y (1996) Effect of interfraction interval in hyperfractionated radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 34:303–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Johnson B, Steinberg SM, Phelps R, Edison M, Veach SR, Ihde D (1988) Female patients with small cell lung cancer live longer than male patients. Am J Med 85:194–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Johnson BE, Ihde DC, Makuch RW (1987) myc family oncogene amplification in tumor cell lines established from small cell lung cancer patients and its relationship to clinical status and course. J Clin Invest 79:1629–1634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Johnson PWM, Joel SP, Love S, Butcher M, Pandian MR, Squires L, Wrigley PFM, Slevin ML (1993) Tumour markers for prediction of survival and monitoring of remission in small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 67:760–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Jørgensen LGM, Østerlind K, Hansen HH, Cooper EH (1988) The prognostic influence of serum neuron specific enolase in small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 58:805–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Jørgensen LGM, Østerlind K, Genollá J, Gomm SA, Hernandez JR, Johnson PWM, Lober J, Splinter TAW, Szturmowicz M (1996) Serum neuron-specific nolase (S-NSE) and the prognosis in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC): a combined multivariable analysis on data from nine centres. Br J Cancer 74:463–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kanters S, Lammers J-W, Voest E (1995) Molecular and biological factors in the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer. Eur Respir J 8:1389–1397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kawahara M, Furuse K, Kodama N et al. (1991) A randomized study of cisplatin versus cisplatin plus vindesine for non-small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer 68:714–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kawashimi K, Nomura S, Hirai H et al. (1992) Correlation of L-myc RFLP with metastasis, prognosis, and multiple cancer in lung cancer patients. Int J Cancer 50:55–7561.Google Scholar
  73. Kern JA, Schwartz DA, Nordberg JE et al. (1990) pl85neu expression in human lung adenocarcinoma predicts shortened survival. Cancer Res 50:5184–5191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kessler R, Gasser B, Massard G et al. (1996) Blood vessel invasion is a major prognostic factor in resected non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 62:1489–1493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kim YC, Park KO, Kim HJ et al. (1996) DNA ploidy and proliferative activity in bcl-2 expressed non-small cell lung cancer. Kor J Int Med 11:101–107.Google Scholar
  76. Kishimoto Y, Murakami Y, Shiraishi M, Hayakhi K, Sekia T (1992) Aberrations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in human non-small cell carcinomas of the lung. Cancer Res 52:4799–4804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kojima A, Shinkaii T, Eguchi K et al. (1991) Analysis of three-year survivors among patients with advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. Jpn Clin Oncol 21:276–281.Google Scholar
  78. Kolodziejski L, Niezabitowski A, Gasinska A (1997) Clinical and flow cytometric prognostic factors in surgically treated squamous cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 16:173–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, O’Byrne KJ et al. (1997) Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor expression correlates with tumour angiogenesis and prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 75:477–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lassen U, Østerlind K, Hansen M, Dombernowsky P, Bergman B, Hansen HH (1995) Long-term survival in small-cell lung cancer: posttreatment characteristics in patients surviving 5 to 18+ years - an analysis of 1714 consecutive patients. J Clin Oncol 13:1215–1220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lassen U, Kristjansen PEG, Østerlind K, Bergman B, Sigsgaard TC, Hirsch FR, Hansen M, Dombernowsky P, Hansen HH (1996) Superiority of cisplatin or carboplatin in combination with teniposide and vincristine in the induction chemotherapy of small-cell lung cancer. A randomized trial with 5 years follow up. Ann Oncol 7: 365–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lee JB, Ro JY, Sahin AA et al. (1991) Expression of blood-group antigen. A - a favorable prognostic factor in non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 324:1084–1090.Google Scholar
  83. Lee JS, Yoon A, Kalapurkal SK et al. (1995) Expression of p53 oncoprotein in non-small-cell lung cancer: a favorable prognostic factor. J Clin Oncol 13:1893–1903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Liewald F, Hatz R, Storck M et al. (1992) Prognostic value of deoxyribonucleic acid aneuploidy in primary non-small-cell lung carcinomas and their metastases. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 104:1476–1482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Linnoila I (1990) Pathology of non-small cell lung cancer. New diagnostic appoaches. Hematol Oncol North Am 4: 1027–1051.Google Scholar
  86. Linnoila RI, Jensen S, Steinberg S et al. (1989) Neuroendocrine differentiation in non-small cell lung cancer correlates with favorable response to chemotherapy (abstract). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 8:248.Google Scholar
  87. Lipford HH, Sears DL, Eggleston JC, More CW, Littlemore KD, Baker RR (1984) Prognostic factors in surgically resected limited-stage, non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. Am J Surg Pathol 8:357–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. List AF, Hainsworth JD, Davis BW, Hande KR, Greco FA, Johnson DH (1986) The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 4:1191–1198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Little AG, WU H-S, Ferguson MK et al. (1990) Perioperative blood transfusion adversely affects prognosis of patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Am J Surg 160: 630–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Macchiarini P, Fontanini G, Hardin JM, Pingitore R, Angeletti CA (1992) Most peripheral, node-negative, non-small-cell lung cancers have low proliferative rates and no intratumoral and peritumoral blood and lymphatic vessel invasion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 104:892–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Martignone S, Menard S, Bedini A, Paccagnella A, Fasolato S, Veggian R, Colnaghi MI (1993) Study of the expression and function of the tumour-associated antigen CaMBrl in small cell lung carcinomas. Eur J Cancer 29A:2020–2025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Matsumoto H, Muramatsu T, Shimazu H (1992) Carbohydrate profiles shown by a lectin and a monoclonal antibody correlate with metastatic potential and prognosis of human lung carcinomas. Cancer 6:2084–2090.Google Scholar
  93. McLaren R, Kuzu I, Dunnill M, Harris A, Lane D, Catter KC (1992) The relationship of p53 immunostaining to survival in carcinoma of the lung. Br J Cancer 66:735–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Miller TP, Chen TT, Coltman CA et al. (1986) Effect of alternating combination chemotherapy on survival of ambulatory patients with metastatic large-cell and adenocarcinoma of the lung. A Southwest Oncology Group study J Clin Oncol 4:502–508.Google Scholar
  95. Mitsudomi T, Steinberg SM, Oie HK et al. (1991) ras Gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancers are associated with shortened survival irrespective of treatment intent. Cancer Res 51:4999–5002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Mitsudomi T, Steinberg SM, Nau MM et al. (1992) p53 Gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and their correlation with the presence of ras mutations and clinical features. Oncogene 7:171–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mitsudomi T, Oyama T, Kusano T, Osaki T, Nakanishi R, Shirakusa T (1993) Mutations of the p53 gene as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:2018–2023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Miyake M, Taki T, Hitomi S, Hakomori S-I (1992) Correlation of expression of H/Ley/Leb antigenes with survival in pa¬tients with carcinoma of the lung. N Engl J Med 1992 327:14–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Miyamoto H, Karado M, Isobe H et al. (1991) Prognostic value of nuclear DNA content and expression of the ras oncogene product in lung cancer. Cancer Res 51: 6346–6350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Moller-Pedersen L, Milman N (1996) Prognostic significance of thrombocytosis in patients with primary lung cancer. Eur Respir J 9:1826–1830.Google Scholar
  101. Moore DF, Lee JS (1996) Staging and prognostic factors: non-small cell lung cancer. In: Pass H II, Mitchell JB, Johnson DH, Turrisi AT (eds) Lung cancer: principles and practice. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  102. Morittu L, Earl HM, Souhami RL, Ash CM, Tobias JS, Geddes DM, Harper PG, Spiro SG (1989) Patients at risk of chemotherapy-associated toxicity in small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 59:801–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Mørkve O, Halvorsen OJ, Skjaerven R, Stangeland L, Culsvik A, Lacrum OD (1993) Prognostic significance of p53 protein expression and DNA ploidy in surgically treated non-small cell lung carcinomas. Anticancer Res 12: 571–578.Google Scholar
  104. Mountain CF (1986) A new international staging system for lung cancer. Chest 89:225–233.Google Scholar
  105. Mountain CF (1988) Prognostic implications of the international staging system for lung cancer. Semin Oncol 15: 236–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Mountain C (1995) New prognostic factors in lung cancer. Biologic prophets of cancer cell aggression. Chest 108: 246–54.Google Scholar
  107. Muers MF, Sherlin P, Brown J (1996) Prognosis in lung cancer: physicians’ opinions compared with outcome and a predictive model. Thorax 51:894–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Nishio M, Koshikawa T, Kuoishi T et al. (1996) Prognostic significance of abnormal p53 accumulation in primary, resected non-small-cell lung cancers. J Clin Oncol 14: 497–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. O’Connell JP, Kris MG, Ralla RJ et al. (1986) Frequency and prognostic importance of pretreatment clinical characteristics in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with combination chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 4:1604–1614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Ogawa J, Tsurumi T, Inoue H, Shohtsu A (1992) Relationship between tumor DNA ploidy and regional lymph node changes in lung cancer. Cancer 69:1688–1695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ogawa JI, Inoue H, Koide S (1997) Glucose-transporter-type-I-gene amplification correlates with sialyl-Lewis-X synthesis and proliferation in lung cancer. Int. J Cancer 74:189–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Østerlind K, Andersen PK (1986) Prognostic factors in small cell lung cancer: multivariate model based on 778 patients treated with chemotherapy with or without irradiation. Cancer Res 46:4189–4194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Østerlind K, Hansen HH, Hansen M, Dombernowsky P, Andersen PK (1986) Long-term disease-free survival in small-cell carcinoma of the lung: a study of clinical determinants. J Clin Oncol 4:1307–1313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Østerlind K, Hansen HH, Dombernowsky P, Hansen M, Andersen PK (1987) Determinants of complete remission induction and maintenance in chemotherapy with or without irradiation of small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 47:2733–2736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Pappot H, Brünner N (1995) The plasminogen activation system and its role in lung cancer. Lung Cancer 12:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Pappot H, Francis D, Brünner N et al. (1996) p53 Protein in non-small cell lung cancer as quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: relation to prognosis. Clin Cancer Res 2:155–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Pastorino U, Andreola S, Tagliabue E et al. (1997) Immunocy-tochemical markers in stage I lung cancer: relevance to prognosis. J Clin Oncol 15:2858–2865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Pedersen H, Brünner N, Grøndahl-Hansen J, Francis D, Østerlind K, Rønne E, Hansen HH, Danø K (1994a) Prognostic impact of urokinase, urokinase receptor, and type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor in squamous and large cell lung cancer tissue. Cancer Res 54:4671–4675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Pedersen H, Francis D, Grøndahl-Hansen J, Østerlind K, Hansen HH, Danø K, Brünner N (1994b) Urokinase and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 54:120–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Pena CM, Rice TW, Ahmad M, Medendorp S (1992) Significance of perioperative blood transfusions in patients undergoing resection of stage I and II non-small cell lung cancers. Chest 102:84–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Pence JC, Kerns BM, Kerns MT et al. (1992) Prognostic significance of the proliferation index in surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer. Arch Surg 128: 1382–1390.Google Scholar
  122. Pujol JL, Cooper EH, Lehmann M et al. (1993) Clinical evaluation of serum tumour marker CA 242 in non-small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 67:1423–1429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Pujol J-L, Grenier J, Parrat E, Lehmann M, Lafontaine T, Quantin X, Michel F-B (1996) Cytokeratins as serum markers in lung cancer: a comparison of CYFRA 21–1 and TPS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154:725–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Quinlan DC, Davidson AG, Summers CL. Wender HE, Doshi HM (1992) Accumulation of p53 protein correlation with a poor prognosis in human lung cancer. Cancer Res 52:4828–4831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Quoix E, Charloux A, Popin E, Pauli G (1993) Inability to predict disease extent in small cell lung cancer based on initial level of serum neuron-specific enolase. Eur J Cancer 16:2248–2250.Google Scholar
  126. Radford JA, Ryder WD J, Dodwell D, Anderson H, Thatcher N (1993) Predicting septic complications of chemotherapy: an analysis of 382 patients treated for small cell lung cancer without dose reduction after major sepsis. Eur J Cancer 29A:81–86.Google Scholar
  127. Rapp E, Pater JL, William A et al. (1988) Chemotherapy can prolong survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: report of a Canadian multicenter randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 6:633–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Rawson NSB, Peto J (1990) An overview of prognostic factors in small cell lung cancer. A report from the subcommittee for the management of lung cancer of the United Kingdom coordinating committee on cancer research. Br J Cancer 61:597–604.Google Scholar
  129. Rodenhuis S, Slebos RJC (1992) Clinical significance of ras oncogene activation in human lung cancer. Cancer Res 52[Suppl 6]:26658–26698.Google Scholar
  130. Rosenfeld MR, Malats N, Schramm L, Graus F, Cardenal F, Vinolas N, Rosell R, Tora M, Real FX, Posner JB, Dalmau J (1997) Serum anti-p53 antibodies and pro¬gnosis of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JNCI 89: 381–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sagman U, Feld R, Evans WK, Warr D, Shepherd FA, Payne D, Pringle J, Yeoh J, DeBoer G, Malkin A, Ginsberg R (1991a) The prognostic significance of pretreatment serum lactate dehydrogenase in patients with small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 9:954–961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sagman U, Maki E, Evans WK, Warr D, Shepherd FA, Sculier JP, Haddad R, Payne D, Pringle F, Yeoh JL, Ciampi A, DeBoer G, McKinney S, Ginsberg R, Feld R (1991b) Small-cell carcinoma of the lung: derivation of a prognostic staging system. J Clin Oncol 9:1639–1649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sarandakou A, Poulakis N, Rizos D, Trakakis E, Phocas I (1993) Anticancer Res 13:173–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Sceagliotti GV, Micela M, Gubetta L et al. (1993) Prognostic significance of Ki67 labelling in resected non small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cancer 29A:363–365.Google Scholar
  135. Scott C, Sause WT, Byhardt R et al. (1997) Recursive partitioning analysis of 1592 patients on four radiation therapy oncology group studies in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 17:59–74.Google Scholar
  136. Sculier JP, Paesmans M, Libert P et al. (1994) Long-term survival after chemotherapy containing platinum derivatives in patients with advanced unresectable non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cancer 30A:1342–1347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Shinkai T, Eguchi K, Sasaki Y et al. (1992) A prognostic-factor risk index in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 30:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Simon R, Altman DG (1994) Statistical aspects of prognostic factor studies in oncology. Br J Cancer 69:979–985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Skov, BG, Sørensen JB, Hirsch FR, Larsson LI, Hansen HH (1991) Prognostic impact of histologic demonstration of chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Ann Oncol 2:355–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Slebos RJC, Kibbaellar RE, Dalesio O et al. (1990) K-ras oncogene activation as a prognostic marker in adeno-carcinoma of the lung. N Engl J Med 32:561–565.Google Scholar
  141. Sørensen JB (1994) Prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer. Radiol Oncol 28:301–308.Google Scholar
  142. Sørensen JB, Badsberg JH (1990) Prognostic factors in resected stage I and II adenocarcinomas of the lung. A multivariate regression analysis of 137 consecutive patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 99:218–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Sørensen JB, Badsberg JH, Olsen J (1989) Prognostic factors in iniperable adenocarcinoma of the lung: a multivariate regression analysis of 259 patients. Cancer Res 49: 5748–5754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Souhami RL, Bradbury I, Geddes DM, Spiro SG, Harper PG, Tobias JS (1985) Prognostic significance of laboratory parameters measured at diagnosis in small cell carcinoma of the lung. Cancer Res 45:2878–2882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Spiegelman D, Maurer LH, Ware JH, Perry MC, Chahinian AP (1989) Prognostic factors in small-cell carcinoma of the lung: an analysis of 1521 patients. J Clin Oncol 7: 344–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Staquet M, Dalesio O (1984) Cancer clinical trials. In: Buyse ME, Staquet MJ, Sylvester RJ (eds) Methods and practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 261–275.Google Scholar
  147. Stevenson II, Gazdar AF, Phelps R et al. (1990) Tumor cell lines established in vitro: an independent prognostic factor for survival in non-small-cell lung cancer. Ann Intern Med 113:764–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Stipa S, Danesi DT, Modini C et al. (1993) The importance of heterogeneity and of multiple site sampling in the prospective determination of deoxyribonucleic acid flow cytometry. Surg Gynecol Obst 176:427–434.Google Scholar
  149. Sugio K, Ishida T, Yokoyama H, Inoue T, Sugimachi K, Sasazuki T (1992) ras Gene mutation as a prognostic marker in adenocarcinoma of the human lung without lymph node metastases. Cancer Res 52:2903–2906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sukurai M, Shinkai T, Eguchi K et al. (1987) Prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer: multiregression analysis in the National Cancer Center Hospital (Japan). J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 115:563–566.Google Scholar
  151. Szabo E, Mulshine J (1993) Epidemiology, prognostic factors and prevention of lung cancer. Curr Opin Oncol 5:302–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Szturmowicz M, Roginska E, Roszkowski K, Kwiek S, filipecki S, Rowinska-Zakrzewska E (1993) Prognostic value of neuron-specific enolase in small cell lung cancer patients. Lung Cancer 8:259–264.Google Scholar
  153. Taguchi O, Gabazza EC, Yoshida M, Yamakami T, Kobayashi H, Shima T (1996) High plasma level of plasmin-a2-plasmin inhibitor complex is predictor of poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer. Clin Chim Acta 244:69–81 Taguchi O, Gabazza EC, Yasui H, Kobayashi T, Yoshida M, Kobayashi H (1997) Prognostic significance of plasma D-dimer levels in patients with lung cancer. Thorax 52:563–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Taguchi O, Gabazza EC, Yasui H, Kobayashi T, Yoshida M, Kobayashi H (1997) Prognostic significance of plasma D-dimer levels in patients with lung cancer. Thorax 52:563–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Takigawa N, Segawa Y, Okahara M et al. (1996) Prognostic factors for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: univariate and multivariate analyses including recursive partitioning and amalgamation. Lung Cancer 15:67–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Tartter PI, Burrows L, Kirschner P (1984) Perioperative blood transfusion adversely affects prognosis after resection of stage I (subset NO) non-oat cell lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 88:659–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Tateishi M, Ishidu T, Mitsudomi T, Kanedo S, Sugimachi K (1991) Prognostic value of c-erb B-2 protein expression in human lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Cancer 27:1372–1375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Taves DR (1974) Minimization: a new method of assigning patients to treatment and control groups. Clin Pharm Ther 15:443–453.Google Scholar
  159. Thiberville L, Bourguignon J, Metayer J et al. (1995) Frequency and prognostic evaluation of 3p21–22 allelic losses in non-small lung cancer. Int J Cancer 64:371–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. van Bodegom PC, Baak JPA, Stroet-van Galen C et al. (1989) The percentage of aneuploid cells is significantly correlated with survival in accurately staged patients with stage I resected squamous cell lung cancer and long-term follow up. Cancer 63:143–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. van der Gaast A, van Putten WLJ, Oosterom R, Cozijnsen M, Hoekstra R, Splinter TAW (1991) Prognostic value of serum thymidine kinase, tissue polypeptide antigen and neuron specific enolase in patients with small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 64:369–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Vangsted A, Drivsholm L, Andersen E, Bock E (1994a) New serum markers for small-cell lung cancer. II. The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM. Cancer Detect Prev 18:221–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Vangsted A, Drivsholm L, Andersen E, Pallesen T, Zeuthen J, Wallin H (1994b) New serum markers for small-cell lung cancer. I. The ganglioside Fucosyl-GMl. Cancer Detect Prev 18:221–229.Google Scholar
  164. Veale D, Kerr N, Gibson GJ, Harris AL (1989) Characterisation of epidermal growth factor receptor in primary human non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 49:1313–1317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Veale D, Kerr N, Gibson GJ, Kelly PJ, Harris AL (1993) The relationship of quantitative epidermal growth factor receptor expression in non-small cell lung cancer to long term survival. Br J Cancer 68:162–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Vincent MD, Ashley SE, Smith IE (1987) Prognostic factors in small cell lung cancer: a simple prognostic index is better than conventional staging. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 23:1589–1599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Visakorpi T, Holli K, Hakama M (1995) High cell proliferation activity determined by DNA flow cytometry and prognosis in epidermoid lung carcinoma. Acta Oncol 34:605–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Volm M, Mattern J, Müller T, Drings P (1988) flow cytometry of epidermoid lung carcinomas: relationship of ploidy and cell cycle phases to survival. A five-year follow up study. Anticancer Res 8:105–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Weiskopf B, Demangeat C, Purohit A et al. (1995) Cyfra 21–1 as biologic marker of non-small cell lung cancer: evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, and prognostic role. Chest 108:163–169.Google Scholar
  170. WHO Handbook for Reporting Results of Cancer Treatment.Google Scholar
  171. Xu H-J, Hu S-X, Cagle PT et al (1991) Absence of RB protein expression in primary non-small cell lung carcinomas.Cancer Res. 51:2735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Yamashita JI, Tashiro K, Yoneda S et al. (1996) Local increase in polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase is associated with tumor invasiveness in non-small cell lung cancer. Chest 109:1328–1334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Zimmermann PV, Hawson GAT, Bint MH, Parsons PG (1987) Ploidy as a prognostic determinant in surgically treated lung cancer. Lancet 230:530–533.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. B. Sørensen
    • 1
  • K. Østerlind
    • 2
  1. 1.The Finsen Center, Department of OncologyCopenhagen University HospitalCopenhagen ØDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine FHillerød Country HospitalHillerødDenmark

Personalised recommendations