Urinary biomonitoring of platinum in occupational medicine

  • R. Schierl

Abstract

For 88 years the noble metal platinum has received attention in Occupational Medicine because of allergic airway reactions, mainly caused by platinum salts (Karasek 1911). In the platinum industry the incidence of allergy symptoms is about 20%, but increased for smokers (Niezborala u. Gamier 1996; Venables et al. 1989). For example, in western Germany 68 persons with occupational disease from platinum salts were registered from 1990 to 1996. There are threshold limit values (TLV) for platinum in some countries, i.e.; in Germany two thresholds exist, the (MAK), 1 mg/m3 for platinum metal and 2 µg/m3 for platinum salts. The second one is now classified only as recommendation because of the high sensitisation risk. Airborne platinum concentrations at platinum refineries have been measured since 1945 (Fothergill et al. 1945), but currently, an additional biomonitoring of metals in human tissues (blood, plasma, urine) is recommended to evaluate workers individual exposure.

Keywords

Hydrogen Peroxide Platinum Creatinine Palladium Photolysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ensslin AS, Pethran A, Schierl R, Fruhmann G (1994) Urinary platinum in hospital personnel occupationally exposed to platinum-containing antineoplastic drugs. Int Arch Occup Health 65:339–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fothergill SJR, Withers DF, Clements FS (1945) Determination of traces of platinum and palladium in the atmosphere of a platinum refinery. Br J Ind Med 2: 99–101Google Scholar
  3. Gefahrstoffverordnung - GefStoffV: Verordnung zum Schutz vor gefährlichen Stoffen vom 26.10.93 (BGBl. I, 1782)Google Scholar
  4. Hohnloser JH, Schierl R, Hasford B, Emmerich B (1996) Cisplatin based chemotherpay in testicular cancer patients: Long term platinum excretion and clinical effects. Eur J Med Res 1,509–514Google Scholar
  5. IARC. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Overall evaluations of carcinogenity: an updating of IARC Monograph volumes 1 to 42. IARC Monogr [Suppl 7] 1987; 170–171 Google Scholar
  6. Karasek SR, Karasek M (1911) Report of the Illinois State Commission of Occupational Diseases to His Excellency Governor Charles S. Deneen, Warner Printing Company, Chicago p 97Google Scholar
  7. Krachler M, Alimonti A, Petrucci F, Irgolic KJ, Forastiere F, Caroli S (1998) Analytical problems in the determination of platinum-group metals in urine by quadrupole and magnetic sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 363: 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Maynard AD, Northage C, Hemingway M, Bradley SD (1997) Measurement of Short-term Exposure to Airborne Soluble Platinum in the Platinum Industry. Ann Occup Hyg 41: 77–94Google Scholar
  9. Messerschmidt J, Alt F, Tölg G, Angerer J, Schaller KH (1992) Adsorptive voltammetric procedure for the determination of platinum baseline levels in human body fluids. Fresenius J Anal Chem 343: 391–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Niezborala M, Gamier R (1996) Allergy to complex platinum salts: a historical prospective cohort study. Occup Environ Med 53: 252–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pethran A, Schierl R, Fruhmann G (1997) Erhöhte Platin-Ausscheidung im Urin nach Zytostatika Zubereitung. Verh Dt Ges Arbeitsmed 37: 331–334Google Scholar
  12. Rosenberg B, van Kamp L, Krigas T (1965) Inhibition of Cell Division in Escherichia coli by Electrolysis Products from a Platinum Electrode. Nature 205: 698–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Schierl R, Rohrer B, Hohnloser J (1995) Long-term platinum excretion in patients treated with cisplatin. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 36: 75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Schierl R, Fries HG, van de Weyer C, Fruhmann G (1998) Urinary excretion of platinum from platinum industry workers. Occup Environ Med 55: 138–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schierl R, Pethran A, Fruhmann G (1998) Gold im Mund - Platin im Urin. Verh Dtsch Ges Arbeitsmed 38: 435–437Google Scholar
  16. Schramel P, Wendler I, Lustig S (1995) Capability of ICP-MS for Pt-analysis in different matrices at ecologically relevant concentrations. Fresenius J Anal Chem 353: 115–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Venables KM, Dally MB, Nunn AJ, Stevens JF, Stephens R, Fairer N et al. (1989) Smoking and occupational allergy in workers in a platinum refinery. BMJ 299: 939–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Weber A, Schaller KH, Angerer J, Alt F, Schmidt M and Weltle D (1991) Objektivierung und Quantifizierung einer beruflichen Platinbelastung beim Umgang mit platinhaltigen Katalysatoren. Verh Dtsch Ges Arbeitsmed 31:611–614Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Schierl
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Occupational and Environmental MedicineUniversity MunichGermany

Personalised recommendations