Neuropathology pp 239-265 | Cite as

Lymphoma and the Nervous System

  • D. W. Ellison
  • B. S. Wilkins
Part of the Current Topics in Pathology book series (CT PATHOLOGY, volume 95)

Abstract

This chapter considers the cellular pathologist’s perspective of the patient whose nervous system is affected by malignant lymphoma. This perspective is mainly gained through the assessment of surgical biopsies or cytological preparations, which are obtained from sites within or outside the central nervous system (CNS). But it is also influenced by postmortem findings, notably histological examination of the fixed brain in disorders that pose a significant diagnostic challenge, such as intravascular large-cell lymphoma.

Keywords

Leukemia Dementia Germinal Oncol Sarcoma 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abdulkader I, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Fraga M, Rodriguez-Nunez A et al. (1999) Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the central nervous system. Hum Pathol 30:978–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agapitos E, Nanas J, Kavantzas N, Davaris P (1997) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of brain occurring after cardiac transplantation. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 16:441–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahsan H, Neugut AI, Bruce JN (1995) Trends in incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in USA, 1981–1990. Int J Epidemiol 24:1078–1085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akpek EK, Ahmed I, Hochberg FH, Soheilian M et al. (1999) Intraocular-central nervous system lymphoma: clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes. Ophthalmology 106:1805–1810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ang LC, Zochodne DW, Ebers GC, Kaufmann JC, Vinters HV (1986) Severe cerebellar degeneration in a patient with T-cell lymphoma. Acta Neuropathol Beri 69:171–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Antinori A, Larocca LM, Fassone L, Cattani P et al. (1999) HHV-8/KSHV is not associated with AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma. Brain Pathol 9:199–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Assaf N, Hasson T, Hoch Marchaim H, Pe’er J et al. (1997) An experimental model for infiltration of malignant lymphoma to the eye and brain. Virchows Arch 431:459–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bashir R, Chamberlain M, Ruby E, Hochberg FH (1996) T-cell infiltration of primary CNS lymphoma. Neurology 46:440–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bataille B, Delwail V, Menet E, Vandermarcq P et al. (2000) Primary intracerebral malignant lymphoma: report of 248 cases. J Neurosurg 92:261–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bednar MM, Salerni A, Flanagan ME, Pendlebury WW (1991) Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma. Case report. J Neurosurg 74:668–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bergmann M, Blasius S, Bankfalvi A, Mellin W (1996) Primary non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the CNS-proliferation, oncoproteins and Epstein-Barr-virus. Gen Diagn Pathol 141:235–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bergmann M, Terzija Wessel U, Blasius S, Kuchelmeister K et al. (1994) Intravascular lymphomatosis of the CNS: clinicopathologic study and search for expression of oncoproteins and Epstein-Barr virus. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 96:236–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bindal AK, Blisard KS, Melin Aldama H, Warnick RE (1997) Primary T-cell lymphoma of the brain in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report. J Neurooncol 31:267–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bishop PC, Wilson WH, Pearson D, Janik J et al. (1999) CNS involvement in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 17:2479–2485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boiardi A, Silvani A, Pozzi A, Fariselli L et al. (1999) Chemotherapy is effective as early treatment for primary central nervous system lymphoma. J Neurol 246:31–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bollen EL, Brouwer RE, Hamers S, Hermans J et al. (1997) Central nervous system relapse in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A single-center study of 532 patients. Arch Neurol 54:854–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brazis PW, Menke DM, McLeish WM, Broderick DF et al. (1995) Angiocentric T-cell lymphoma presenting with multiple cranial nerve palsies and retrobulbar optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol 15:152–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brierley JB, Corsellis JAN, Hierons R, Nevin S (1960) Subacute encephalitis of later adult life, mainly affecting the limbic area. Brain 83:357–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brown MT, McClendon RE, Gockerman JP (1995) Primary central nervous system lymphoma with systemic metastasis: case report and review. J Neurooncol 23:207–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burstein SD, Kernohan JW, Uihlein A (1963) Reticuloendothelial sarcomas of brain. Cancer 16:289–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Buxton N, Punt J, Hewitt M (1998) Primary Ki-1-positive T-cell lymphoma of the brain in a child. Pediatr Neurosurg 29:250–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cachia AR, Theocharous C (1996) Primary intracerebral small lymphocytic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with plasmacytoid differentiation, associated with prominent extracellular proteinaceous deposits. Pathology 28:98–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Camilleri Broet S, Martin A, Moreau A, Angonin R et al. (1998) Primary central nervous system lymphomas in 72 immunocompetent patients: pathologic findings and clinical correlations. Groupe Ouest Est d’etude des Leucenies et Autres Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS). Am J Clin Pathol 110:607–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cehreli C, Payzin B, Undar B, Yilmaz U, Alakavuklar MN (1995) Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in association with Hodgkin’s disease: a report of two cases. Acta Haematol 94:210–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chamberlain MC, Levin VA (1990) Adjuvant chemotherapy for primary lymphoma of the central nervous system. Arch Neurol 47:1113–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chamberlain MC, Levin VA (1992) Primary central nervous system lymphoma: a role for adjuvant chemotherapy. J Neurooncol 14:271–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chen CY, Zimmerman RA, Faro S, Bilaniuk LT et al. (1996) Childhood leukemia: central nervous system abnormalities during and after treatment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 17:295–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Christov C, Adle-Biassette H, Lechapt E, Poron F et al. (1999) Primary brain lymphoma cell turnover differs in patients with and without AIDS: relationships to bcl-2 expression and host cell reaction. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58:1069–1077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Clark WC, Dohan FC, Jr., Moss T, Schweitzer JB (1991) Immunocytochemical evidence of lymphocytic derivation of neoplastic cells in malignant angioendotheliomatosis. J Neurosurg 74:757–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cobbers JM, Wolter M, Reifenberger J, Ring GU et al. (1998) Frequent inactivation of CDKN2 A and rare mutation of TP53 in PCNSL. Brain Pathol 8:263–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Corboy JR, Garl PJ, Kleinschmidt DeMasters BK (1998) Human herpesvirus 8 DNA in CNS lymphomas from patients with and without AIDS [see comments]. Neurology 50:335–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Corn BW, Marcus SM, Topham A, Hauck W, Curran WJ Jr (1997) Will primary central nervous system lymphoma be the most frequent brain tumor diagnosed in the year 2000? Cancer 79:2409–2413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cote TR, Manns A, Hardy CR, Yellin FJ, Hartge P (1996) Epidemiology of brain lymphoma among people with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS/Cancer Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:675–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dalmau J, Graus F, Rosenblum MK, Posner JB (1992) Anti-Hu-associated paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/sensory neuronopathy. A clinical study of 71 patients. Medicine Baltimore 71:59–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dalmau J, Gultekin HS, Posner JB (1999) Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes: pathogenesis and physiopathology. Brain Pathol 9:275–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dalmau JO, Posner JB (1999) Paraneoplastic syndromes. Arch Neurol 56:405–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dean JM, Novak MA, Chan CC, Green WR (1996) Tumor detachments of the retinal pigrrient epithelium in ocular/central nervous system lymphoma. Retina 16:47–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    DeAngelis LM (1990) Primary central nervous system lymphoma imitates multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 9:177–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    DeAngelis LM (1999) Primary central nervous system lymphoma. Curr Opin Neurol 12:687–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    DeAngelis LM (1999) Primary CNS lymphoma: treatment with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. J Neurooncol 43:249–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    DeAngelis LM, Yahalom J, Thaler HT, Kher U (1992) Combined modality therapy for primary CNS lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 10:635–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Deckert Schlüter M, Marek J, Setlik M, Markova J et al. (1998) Primary manifestation of Hodgkin’s disease in the central nervous system. Virchows Arch 432:477–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Deckert Schluter M, Rang A, Wiestier OD (1998) Apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene products in primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol Beri 96:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    DeMario MD, Liebowitz DN (1998) Lymphomas in the immunocompromised patient. Semin Oncol 25:492–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ellison DW (2000) Primary CNS lymphomas. In: Ellison D, Love S, eds. Neuropathology. A reference text of CNS pathology. London: Mosby,Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Evans GD, Grimwade DJ (1999) Extramedullary disease in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 33:219–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ferracini R, Bergmann M, Pileri S, Rigobello L et al. (1995) Primary T-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system. Clin Neuropathol 14:125–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ferrari P, Federico M, Grimaldi LM, Silingardi V (1990) Stiff-man syndrome in a patient with Hodgkin’s disease. An unusual paraneoplastic syndrome. Haematologica 75:570–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ferreri AJ, Reni M, Zoldan MC, Terreni MR, Villa E (1996) Importance of complete staging in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma presenting as a cerebral mass lesion. Cancer 77:827–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Freeman C, Berg JW, Cutler SJ (1972) Occurrence and prognosis of extranodal lymphomas. Cancer 29:252–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Glass J, Hochberg FH, Miller DC (1993) Intravascular lymphomatosis. A systemic disease with neurologic manifestations. Cancer 71:3156–3164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Glass J, Shustik C, Hochberg FH, Cher L, Gruber ML (1996) Therapy of primary central nervous system lymphoma with pre-irradiation methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone (MCHOD). J Neurooncol 30:257–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goplen AK, Dunlop O, Liestol K, Lingjaerde OC et al. (1997) The impact of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AIDS patients: a population-based autopsy study from Oslo. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 14:351–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grant JW, Isaacson PG (1992) Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma. Brain Pathol 2:97–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grant JW, von Deimling A (1990) Primary T-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system. Arch Pathol Lab Med 114:24–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Graus F, Dalmau J, Valldeoriola F, Ferrer I et al. (1997) Immunological characterization of a neuronal antibody (anti-Tr) associated with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and Hodgkin’s disease. J Neuroimmunol 74:55–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Guha Thakurta N, Damek D, Pollack C, Hochberg FH (1999) Intravenous methotrexate as initial treatment for primary central nervous system lymphoma: response to therapy and quality of life of patients. J Neurooncol 43:259–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hammack J, Kotanides H, Rosenblum MK, Posner JB (1992) Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. II. Clinical and immunologic findings in 21 patients with Hodgkin’s disease. Neurology 42:1938–1943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hanson MN, Morrison VA, Peterson BA, Stieglbauer KT et al. (1996) Posttransplant T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders-an aggressive, late complication of solid-organ transplantation [see comments]. Blood 88:3626–3633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Diebold J, Flandrin G et al. (2000) The World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: Report of the Clinical Advisory Committee Meeting, Airlie House, Virginia, November 1997. Histopathology 36:69–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Stein H, Banks PM et al. (1994) A revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms: a proposal from the International Lymphoma Study Group [see comments]. Blood 84:1361–1392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Herrlinger U (1999) Primary CNS lymphoma: findings outside the brain. J Neurooncol 43:227–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Herrlinger U, Klingel K, Meyermann R, Kandolf R et al. (2000) Central nervous system Hodgkin’s lymphoma without systemic manifestation: case report and review of the literature. Acta Neuropathologica 99:709–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Herrlinger U, Schabet M, Bitzer M, Petersen D, Krauseneck P (1999) Primary central nervous system lymphoma: from clinical presentation to diagnosis. J Neurooncol 43:219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hochberg FH, Miller DC (1988) Primary central nervous system lymphoma. J Neurosurg 68:835–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Iwashita H, Argyrakis A, Lowitzsch K, Spaar FW (1974) Polyneuropathy in Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinaemia. J Neurol Sci 21:341–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jalkanen S, Aho R, Kallajoki M, Ekfors T et al. (1989) Lymphocyte homing receptors and adhesion molecules in intravascular malignant lymphomatosis. Int J Cancer 44:777–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jellinger KA, Paulus W (1995) Primary central nervous system lymphomas-new pathological developments. J Neurooncol 24:33–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jenkins CN, Colquhoun IR (1998) Characterization of primary intracranial lymphoma by computed tomography: an analysis of 36 cases and a review of the literature with particular reference to calcification haemorrhage and cyst formation. Clin Radiol 53:428–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Julien S, Radosavljevic M, Labouret N, Camilleri Broet S et al. (1999) AIDS primary central nervous system lymphoma: molecular analysis of the expressed VH genes and possible implications for lymphomagenesis. J Immunol 162:1551–1558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kaplinsky C, Toren A, Neumann Y, Mandel M et al. (1997) Central nervous system involvement at diagnosis in a case of pediatric CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 28:132–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kawasaki C, Ikeda H, Fukumoto T (1995) Cerebral mass lesions associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Int J Hematol 61:97–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Keldsen N, Michalski W, Bentzen SM, Hansen KB, Thorling K (1996) Risk factors for central nervous system involvement in non-Hodgkins-lymphoma-a multivariate analysis. Acta Oncol 35:703–708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kelly JJ, Jr, Kyle RA, Miles JM, Dyck PJ (1983) Osteosclerotic myeloma and peripheral neuropathy. Neurology 33:202–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    King RH, Thomas PK (1984) The occurrence and significance of myelin with unusually large periodicity. Acta Neuropathol Beri 63:319–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kleopa K, Becker G, Roggendorf W, Reichmann H (1996) Primary T-cell lymphoma of the cerebellum. A case report. J Neurooncol 27:225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Knowles DM (1999) Immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. Mod Pathol 12:200–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lachance DH, O’Neill BP, Macdonald DR, Jaeckle KA et al. (1991) Primary leptomeningeal lymphoma: report of 9 cases, diagnosis with immunocytochemical analysis, and review of the literature. Neurology 41:95–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Landys KE, Berg GE, Torgerson JS, Klingenstierna HA et al. (1995) Bulky centroblastic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the cranium vault mimicking brain involvement managed with chemotherapy: a case report. Cancer 76:1261–1267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Larocca LM, Capello D, Rinelli A, Nori S et al. (1998) The molecular and phenotypic profile of primary central nervous system lymphoma identifies distinct categories of the disease and is consistent with histogenetic derivation from germinal center-related B cells. Blood 92:1011–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lisak RP, Mitchell M, Zweiman B, Orrechio E, Asbury AK (1977) Guillain-Barre syndrome and Hodgkin’s disease: three cases with immunological studies. Ann Neurol 1:72–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lutz JM, Coleman MP (1994) Trends in primary cerebral lymphoma. Br J Cancer 70:716–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Majumdar G (1998) Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with cerebral infiltration. Leuk Lymphoma 28:603–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Marsh WL, Jr, Stevenson DR, Long HJd (1983) Primary leptomeningeal presentation of T-cell lymphoma. Report of a patient and review of the literature. Cancer 51:1125–1131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Matsuo T, Yamaoka A, Shiraga F, Matsuo N (1998) Two types of initial ocular manifestations in intraocular-central nervous system lymphoma. Retina 18:301–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    McAllister LD, Doolittle ND, Guastadisegni PE, Kraemer DF et al. (2000) Cognitive outcomes and long-term follow-up results after enhanced chemotherapy delivery for primary central nervous system lymphoma. Neurosurgery 46:51–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    McCue MP, Sandrock AW, Lee JM, Harris NL, Hedley Whyte ET (1993) Primary T-cell lymphoma of the brainstem. Neurology 43:377–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Miller DC, Hochberg FH, Harris NL, Gruber ML et al. (1994) Pathology with clinical correlations of primary central nervous system non-Hodgkirís lymphoma. The Massachusetts General Hospital experience 1958–1989. Cancer 74:1383–1397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mittra RA, Pulido JS, Hanson G A, Kajdacsy Balla A, Brummitt CF (1999) Primary ocular Epstein-Barr virus-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a patient with AIDS: a clinicopathologic report. Retina 19:45–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Montserrat E, Bosch F, Lopez Guillermo A, Graus F et al. (1996) CNS involvement in mantle-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 14:941–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Morgello S, Maiese K, Petito CK (1989) T-cell lymphoma in the CNS: clinical and pathologic features. Neurology 39:1190–1196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Novak JA, Katzin WE (1995) Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma with a predominant CD8 immunophenotype. Cancer 75:2180–2185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nozaki M, Tada M, Mizugaki Y, Takada K et al. (1998) Expression of oncogenic molecules in primary central nervous system lymphomas in immunocompetent patients. Acta Neuropathol Beri 95:505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    O’Neill BP, Dinapoli RP, Kurtin PJ, Habermann TM (1995) Occult systemic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in patients initially diagnosed as primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL): how much staging is enough? J Neurooncol 25:67–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    O’Neill BP, Wang CH, O’Fallon JR, Colgan JD et al. (1999) Primary central nervous system non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (PCNSL): survival advantages with combined initial therapy? A final report of the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) Study 86-72-52. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43:559–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Oinonen R, Franssila K, Elonen E (1999) Central nervous system involvement in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. Ann Hematol 78:145–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Onda K, Wakabayashi K, Tanaka R, Takahashi H (1999) Intracranial malignant lymphomas: clinicopathological study of 26 autopsy cases. Brain Tumor Pathol 16:29–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ormerod LD, Puklin JE (1997) AIDS-associated intraocular lymphoma causing primary retinal vasculitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 5:271–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ostronoff M, Soussain C, Zambon E, Moran A et al. (1995) Localized stage non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the testis: a retrospective study of 16 cases. Nouv Rev Fr Hematol 37:267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pappas CT, Johnson PC, Sonntag VK (1988) Signet-ring cell lymphoma of the central nervous system. Case report. Journal of Neurosurgery 69:789–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Paulus W (1999) Classification, pathogenesis and molecular pathology of primary CNS lymphomas. J Neurooncol 43:203–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Paulus W, Ott MM, Strik H, Keil V, Muller Hermelink HK (1994) Large cell anaplastic (KI-1) brain lymphoma of T-cell genotype. Hum Pathol 25:1253–1256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pawson R, Richardson DS, Pagliuca A, Kelsey SM et al. (1998) Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in London: clinical experience of 21 cases. Leuk Lymphoma 31:177–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Peltola J, Hietaharju A, Rantala I, Lehtinen T, Haapasalo H (1998) A reversible neuronal antibody (anti-Tr) associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in Hodgkin’s disease. Acta Neurol Scand 98:360–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Penn I, Porat G (1995) Central nervous system lymphomas in organ allograft recipients. Transplantation 59:240–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Peris K, Fargnoli MC, Berardelli A, Crecco M et al. (1998) Peripheral nervous system involvement in a patient with large T-cell lymphoma arising from a pre-existing mycosis fungoides. Br J Dermatol 139:299–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ponzoni M, Arrigoni G, Gould VE, Del Curto B et al. (2000) Lack of CD 29 (betal integrin) and CD 54 (ICAM-1) adhesion molecules in intravascular lymphomatosis. Hum Pathol 31:220–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Posner JB (1992) Pathogenesis of central nervous system paraneoplastic syndromes. Rev Neurol Paris 148:502–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Posner JB, Dalmau J (1995) Clinical enigmas of paraneoplastic neurologic disorders. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 97:61–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Propp RP, Means E, Deibel R, Sherer G, Barron K (1975) Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia and neuropathy. Deposition of M-component on myelin sheaths. Neurology 25:980–988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ramsay AD, Smith WJ, Isaacson PG (1988) T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma. Am J Surg Pathol 12:433–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Restrepo A, Raez LE, Byrne GE, Jr., Johnson T et al. (1998) Is central nervous system prophylaxis necessary in ocular adnexal lymphoma? Crit Rev Oncog 9:269–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rickert CH, Dockhorn Dworniczak B, Simon R, Paulus W (1999) Chromosomal imbalances in primary lymphomas of the central nervous system. Am J Pathol 155:1445–1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rivero ME, Kuppermann BD, Wiley CA, Garcia CR et al. (1999) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related intraocular B-cell lymphoma. Arch Ophthalmol 117:616–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Roncaroli F, Poppi M, Riccioni L, Frank F (1997) Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the sciatic nerve followed by localization in the central nervous system: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 40:618–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Russell DS, Rubinstein LJ, Pathology of tumours of the nervous system (Edward Arnold, London, ed. Fifth, 1989).Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Scaravilli F, An SF, Groves M, Thorn M (1999) The neuropathology of paraneoplastic syndromes. Brain Pathology 9:251–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Schabet M (1999) Epidemiology of primary CNS lymphoma. J Neurooncol 43:199–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Schlake HP, Husstedt IW, Grotemeyer KH, Potter R (1989) Paraneoplastic subacute cerebellar degeneration in Hodgkin’s disease. Report of three cases and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 91:329–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Schold SC, Cho ES, Somasundaram M, Posner JB (1979) Subacute motor neuronopathy: a remote effect of lymphoma. Ann Neurol 5:271–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Schwechheimer K, Braus DF, Schwarzkopf G, Feller AC et al. (1994) Polymorphous high-grade B-cell lymphoma is the predominant type of spontaneous primary cerebral malignant lymphomas. American Journal of Surgical Pathology 18:931–937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sheibani K, Battifora H, Winberg CD, Burke JS et al. (1986) Further evidence that “malignant angioendotheliomatosis” is an angiotropic large-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 314:943–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Stroup RM, Sheibani K, Moneada A, Purdy LJ, Battifora H (1990) Angiotropic (intravascular) large cell lymphoma. A clinicopathologic study of seven cases with unique clinical presentations. Cancer 66:1781–1788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tachikawa N, Goto M, Hoshino Y, Gatanaga H et al. (1999) Detection of Toxoplasma gondii, Epstein-Barr virus, and JC virus DNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with focal central nervous system complications [see comments]. Intern Med 38:556–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Tani E, Costa I, Svedmyr E, Skoog L (1995) Diagnosis of lymphoma, leukemia, and metastatic tumor involvement of the cerebrospinal fluid by cytology and immunocytochemistry. Diagn Cytopathol 12:14–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Thompsett AR, Ellison DW, Stevenson FK, Zhu D (1999) V(H) gene sequences from primary central nervous system lymphomas indicate derivation from highly mutated germinal center B cells with ongoing mutational activity. Blood 94:1738–1746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Tomlinson FH, Kurtin PJ, Suman VJ, Scheithauer BW et al. (1995) Primary intracerebral malignant lymphoma: a clinicopathological study of 89 patients. Journal of Neurosurgery 82:558–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Torenbeek R, Scheltens P, Strack van Schijindel RJ, Algra PR et al. (1993) Angiotropic intravascular large-cell lymphoma with massive cerebral extension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 56:914–916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Tutt AN, Brada M, Sampson SA (1997) Enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma presenting as an isolated CNS lymphoma three years after diagnosis of coeliac disease: T cell receptor polymerase chain reaction studies failed to show the original enteropathy to be a clonal disorder. Gut 40:801–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Uetsuka S, Kajiwara K, Suehiro E, Nishizaki T et al. (1999) T cell malignant lymphoma in the central nervous system after acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a child. Childs Nerv Syst 15:486–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    van Besien K, Ha CS, Murphy S, McLaughlin P et al. (1998) Risk factors, treatment, and outcome of central nervous system recurrence in adults with intermediate-grade and immunoblastic lymphoma. Blood 91:1178–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    van Dongen J J, Wolvers-Tettero IL (1991) Analysis of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes. Part II: possibilities and limitations in the diagnosis and management of lymphoproliferative diseases and related disorders. Clinica Chimica Acta 198:93–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Villegas E, Villa S, Lopez Guillermo A, Petit J et al. (1997) Primary central nervous system lymphoma of T-cell origin: description of two cases and review of the literature. J Neurooncol 34:157–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Vinters HV, Gilbert JJ (1982) Multifocal chloromas of the brain. Surg Neurol 17:47–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Yeh KH, Lien HC, Hsu SM, Cheng AL (1999) Quiescent nasal T/NK cell lymphoma manifested as primary central nervous system lymphoma. Am J Hematol 60:161–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Ellison
  • B. S. Wilkins

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations