Epidemiological Aspects

  • M. Monir Madkour


Brucellosis remains a common zoonotic disease all over the world. Recent epidemiological reports have indicated several changes in its pattern in many countries. Some of the so-called brucellosis-free countries such as Japan have reported occasional cases. Japan was declared brucellosis-free in 1985. However, in 1996 Takahashi and colleagues reported a Japanese man with pulmonary brucellosis. The patient had never travelled outside Japan or consumed raw milk or its products. The Falkland Islands were declared brucellosis-free in 1994 (Reichel et al. 1994). Canada was about to be declared free but recent reports from Baffin Island show an incidence in humans averaging 34 cases per 100,000 population (Ferguson 1997).


Saudi Arabia Falkland Island Epidemiological Aspect Human Brucellosis Brucella Melitensis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdussalam, M. and Fein, D. A. (1976) Brucellosis as a world problem. International Symposium on Brucellosis (II), Rabat 1975. Dev. Biol. Stand., 31, 9–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akan, O. A. (1993) Laboratory infection. Mikrobiyol-Bul, 27, 77–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Al Aska, A. K. and Chagla, A. H. (1989) Laboratory-acquired brucellosis. J Hosp Infect, 14, 69–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al Aska, A. K., Al Tuwaijry, A., AI Orainey, I. O., Halim, K. and Sheick, O. (1991) Seroepidemiology of human brucellosis. Ann S Med, 2, 245 (Symposia abstract).Google Scholar
  5. AI Ballaa, S. R., AI Ballaa, S. R., Al Aska, A. et al. (1994) Seasonal variation of culture positive brucellosis at a major teaching hospital. Ann Saudi Medicine, 14, 12–15.Google Scholar
  6. Al Nasser, A., Al Aska, A., Alballa, S., AI Mofleh, I. A., AI Sukait, M. and Hassan, O. S. (1991) Epidemiology of brucellosis in Saudi Arabia. Ann S Med., 2, 245 (Symposia abstract).Google Scholar
  7. Al Zeftawi, N. M., Al Issa, M., Bekairi, S. I., Radwan, A. A. and Hafez, S. M. (1986) Epidemiology of brucellosis among abattoir workers in Saudi Arabia. Ann S Med., 4, 2–29–S–31.Google Scholar
  8. Alausa, O. K. (1980) Incidence and seasonal prevalence among an occupationally-exposed population to brucellosis. Trop. Geogr. Med., 32, 12–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Alausa, O. K. (1979) The investigation and control of a large-scale community outbreak of brucellosis in Nigeria. Public Health (London), 93, 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aller, B. (1975) Brucellosis in Spain. Int. J. Zoonoses, 2, 10–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Allwright, S. R and Murphy, D. L. (1979) Brucellosis in Irish meat workers. J. Irish Med. Assoc., 72, 516–521.Google Scholar
  12. Ansorg, A., Palm, G. and Unger, V. (1983) Malta Fever in a brucello- sis-free region: analysis of the outbreak of Malta Fever in the area of Goettingen, 1982. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol, Hyg. (A), 255, 299–308.Google Scholar
  13. Araj, G. F. and Azzam, R. A. (1996) Seroprevalence of brucella antibodies among persons in high-risk occupation in Lebanon. Epidemiol Infect., 117, 281–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Arnow, P. M., Smaron, M. and Ormists, V. (1984) Brucellosis in a group of travellers to Spain. JAMA, 251, 505–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Arrighi, H. M. (1986) Brucellosis surveillance in Saudi Arabia’s Eastern Province. Ann S Med, 6, S-5–S-9.Google Scholar
  16. Batchelor, B. L., Brindle, R. J. et al. (1992) Biochemical misidentifi- cation of Brucella melitensis and subsequent laboratory-acquired infections. J. Hosp. Infect, 22, 159–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benjamin, B. and Annobil, S. H. (1992) Childhood brucellosis in southwestern Saudi Arabia: a 5-year experience. J Trop Pediatr (England), 38, 167–172.Google Scholar
  18. Bjorkman, G. and Bengston, H. (1962) Eradication of bovine bru-cellosis in Sweden. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 140, 1192–1195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Blajan, L. and Melendez, L. V. (1984) Contribution of the OIE to the control of animal brucellosis on a world-wide scale. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz, 3, 167–189.Google Scholar
  20. Boycott, J. A. (1964) Undulant fever as an occupational disease. Lancet, ii, 972–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown, G. M. (1977) The history of the brucellosis eradication pro-gram in the United States. Ann. Sclavo, 19, 20–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Buchanan, T. M., Faber, L. V. and Feldman, R. A. (1974) Brucellosis in the United States, 1960–1972. An abbattoir-associated disease. Part I. Clinical features and therapy. Medicine, 53, 403–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Buchanan, T. M., Hendricks, S. L., Patton, C. M. and Feldman, R. A. (1974b) Brucellosis in the United States, 1960–1972. An abattoir- associated disease. Part III. Epidemiological and evidence of immunity. Medicine, 53, 427–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Buchanan, T. M., Sulzer, C. R., Frix, M. K. and Feldman, R. A. (1974a) Brucellosis in the United States, 196–1972. An abattoir-associated disease. Part II. Diagnostic aspects. Medicine, 53, 415–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carmichael, L. E. and Kenny, R. M. (1968) Canine abortion caused by Brucella canis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 152, 427–439.Google Scholar
  26. Castell-Monsalva, J., Rullan, J. V., Peiro-Callizo, E. F.and Nieto- Sandoval-Alcolea, A. (1996) Epidemic outbreak of 81 cases of brucellosis following the consumption of fresh cheese without pasteurization. Rev Esp Salud Publica, 70, 303–311.Google Scholar
  27. Charters, A. D. (1980) Brucellosis. Aust. Fam. Physician, 9, 707–712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chomel, B., DeBess, E., Mangiamele, D., Reilly, K., Farver, T., Sun, R and Barett, L. (1994) Changing trends in the epidemiology of human brucellosis in California from 1973 to 1992: A shift toward foodborne transmission. J Infect Dis., 170, 1216–1223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coll Jorda, D., Arteagoitia Axpe, J. M. and Martinez Navarro, F. (1997) The evaluation of epidemiological services related to brucellosis in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Rev Esp Salud Publica (Spain), 71, 181–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Colmenero, J. D., Porras, J. J., Valdivielso, J. A. et al. (1986) Brucellosis: prospective study of 100 cases. Med. Clin. (Bare.), 86, 43–48.Google Scholar
  31. Corry, J. E. and Hinton, M. H. (1997) Zoonoses in the meat industry: a review. Acta Vet Hung (Hungary), 45, 457–479.Google Scholar
  32. Damon, S. R., Scruggs, J. H. and Parker, E. R. (1950) Brucellosis as an occupational hazard. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 117, 39–40.Google Scholar
  33. Davos, D. E., Cargill, C. F. Kyrkou, M. R. et al. (1981) Outbreak of brucellosis at a South Australian abattoir. S. Epidemiological investigations. Med. J. Aust., 2, 657–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ding, X. L. (1993) Investigations on the epidemiology of brucellosis in some villages (pasturelands) of Su Nan County, Gansu Province. Chung Hua Liu Hsing Ping Hsueh Tsa Chih., 14, 338–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dominguez Garcia, A., Canela Soler, J. and Fuentes Almendros, M. (1991) Evaluation of the information provided by the system of compulsory notification of diseases. Gac Sanit (Spain), 5, 29–33.Google Scholar
  36. Escalante, J. A. and Held, F. R. (1969) Brucellosis in Peru. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 155, 2146–2152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ferguson, M. A. (1997) Rangiferine brucellosis on Baffin Island. J Wildl Dis., 33, 536–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Flynn, M. P. (1983) Human clinical bovine-type brucellosis not derived from milk. Public Health (London), 97, 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Foulon, G., Adriambololona. L., Nguyen, B. et al. (1981) Epidemio-logic des brucelloses. Rev. Epidemiol. Sante Publique, 29, 389–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Galbraith, N. S., Ros, M. S., Mowbray, R. R. and Payne, D. J. (1969) Outbreak of B. melitensis type 2 infection in London. Br. Med. J., i, 612–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Galvez Vargas, R., Rodriguez Martin, A., Rodriguez-Contreras Pe- layo, R. and Delgado Rodriguez, M. (1991) Epidemiology of brucellosis in the Granada province (I). Occupational risks. Med Clin (Bare) (Spain), 96, 570–572.Google Scholar
  42. Gameel, S. E., Mohamed, S. O., Mustafa, A. A. and Azwai, s. M. (1993) Prevalence of camel brucellosis in Libya. Trop Anim Health Prod., 25, 91–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grammont-Cupillard, M., Berthet-Badetti,. L. and Dellamonica, P. (1996) Brucellosis from sniffing bacteriological cultures. Lancet, 348,1732–1734 (letter).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gruner, E., Bernasconi, R. L., Galeassi, R. L., Buhl, D., Heinzle, R. and Nadal, D. (1994) Brucellosis: an occupational hazard for medical laboratory personnel. Report of five cases. Infection, 1, 33–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hafez, S. M. (1986) The impact of uncontrolled animal importation and marketing on the prevalence of brucellosis in Saudi Arabia. Ann S Med., 6, S-15–S18.Google Scholar
  46. Harrington, J. M. and Shannon, H. S. (1976) Incidence of tuberculosis, hepatitis, brucellosis and shigellosis in British medical laboratory workers. Br. Med. J., i, 759–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hashim, N. H., Galil, G. A., Hulaibi, M. A. and Al Saleem, E. M. (1987) The incidence of brucellosis and species of brucella organisms isolated from animals in Al-Hassa. World Anim. Rev., 61, 32–35Google Scholar
  48. Heathman, L. S. (1934) A survey of workers in packing plants for evidence of brucella infection. J. Infect. Dis., 55, 243–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hendricks, S. L., Borts, I. H., Heeven, R. H. et al. (1962) Brucellosis outbreak in an Iowa packing house. A. J. Public Health., 52, 1166–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hoyos, C., Izquierdo, G., Piscoya, G., Romero, M. and Saldias, J. (1991) Incidence of infective diseases at an internal medicine service. Rev Gastroenterol Peru (Peru), 11, 171–175.Google Scholar
  51. Huddleson, I. F., Johnson, H. W. and Hamann, E. G. (1933) A study of brucella infection in swine and employees of packing houses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 83, 16–30.Google Scholar
  52. Hussein, A. S., Sing, S. S. and Haji, H. (1978) A survey of bovine brucellosis in the southern parts of Somalia Democratic Republic. A comparative study of prevalence of the disease in farm animals and animals from nomadic herds. Bull. Anim. Health. Prod. Afr., 26, 150–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hutchings, L: M., McCullough, N. B., Donham, C. R. et al. (1951) The variability of B. melitensis in naturally infected hams. Public Health Rep., 66, 1402–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jamieson, J. A., Rich, G. E., Kyrkou, M. R. et al. (1981) Outbreak of brucellosis at a South Australian abattoir. 1. Clinical and serological findings. Med. J. Aust., 2, 593–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Brucellosis, Sixth Report (1986) Technical Report Series No. 740, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  56. Jordan, C. E (1948) Brucellosis in industry. Indust. Med., 17, 176–180.Google Scholar
  57. Joshi, D. D. (1991) Organisation of veterinary public health in the south Asia region. Rev Sci Tech (France), 10, 1101–1129.Google Scholar
  58. Kaufmann. A. F., Fox, M. D., Boyce, J. M. et al. (1980) Airborne spread of brucellosis. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 353, 105–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kohlhaufl, M. et al. (1990) 33-year-old patient with recurrent fever and splenomegaly. Ingernist (Berl) (Germany), 31, 602–604.Google Scholar
  60. Kumar, P. and Singh, D. K. (1997) Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among abattoir personnel of Delhi. J. Commun. Dis., 29, 131–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Levine, M. G. (1943) Brucellosis in packing house workers. J. Indust. Hyg. Toxicol., 25, 451–452.Google Scholar
  62. Lew. D. (1984) Etats febriles lors d’un retour de voyage - quelques cas inhabituels. Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr., 114, 1029–1031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lewis, A. E. (1978) Brucellosis eradication in Canada. Proc. Ann. Meet. US Anim. Health Assoc., 82, 137–178.Google Scholar
  64. Lopez-Merino, A., Migranas-Ortiz, R., Perez-Miravete, A., Magos, C., Salvatierra-Izaba, B., Tapia-Conyer, R. et al. (1992) Seroepide- miology of brucellosis in Mexico. Salud Publica Mex (Mexico), 34, 230–240.Google Scholar
  65. Lulu, A. R., Araj, G. G., Khateeb, M. I. et al. (1988) Human brucellosis in Kuwait: a prospective study of 400 cases. Q. J. Med., New Series, 66, 39–54.Google Scholar
  66. Luna Sanchez, A., Rodriguez de Cepeda, A. and Suarez Morano, T. (1998) Analysis of a disease outbreak of brucellosis in slaughterhouse workers. Rev Esp Salud Publica (Spain) Google Scholar
  67. Luzzi, G. A., Brindle, R, Socket, P. N., Klenerman, P and Warrell, D. A. (1993) Brucellosis: imported and laboratory-acquired cases, an overview of treatment trials. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg., 87, 138–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Madkour, M. M . (1989) Occupational related infectious arthritis. In Bailliere’s Clinical Rheumatology. Occupational Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 3 (ed G. P. Balint ), W. B. Saunders. Pp. 157–192.Google Scholar
  69. Madkour, M. M., Rahman, A., Talukder, M. A. and Kudwah, A. (1985) Brucellosis in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med. J., 6, 324–332.Google Scholar
  70. Madkour, Monir, M. Brucellosis (1996) In: Weatherall, D. J., Ledingham, J. G. and Warrell, D. A. Eds. Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 3rd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University press, 619–623.Google Scholar
  71. Madkour, Monir. M. Brucellosis (1998) In: Fauci, A.S., Braunwald, E., Isselbacher, K. J. et al. Eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 969–971.Google Scholar
  72. Makarem, E. H., Karjoo, R. and Omidi, A. (1982) Frequency of B. melitensis in Southern Iran. J. Trop. Pediatr., 28, 97–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Malik, G. M. (1997) A clinical study of brucellosis in adults in the Asir region of southern Saudi Arabia. Am J Trop Med Hyg., 56, 375–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Martin-Mazuelos, E et al. (1994) Outbreak of Brucella melitensis among microbiology laboratory workers. J Clin Microbiol, 32, 2035–2036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Massenet, D., Djime, O. and Karifene, R. (1993) Seroepidemiological survey of brucellosis in abattoir personnel in N’Djamena (Tchad). Med Trop Mars. 53, 253–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Mauff, A. C. (1980) Acute brucellosis in Johannesburg. S. Afr. Med. J., 58, 477–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. McCullough, N. B., Eisele, C. W. and Pavelchek, E. (1951) Survey of brucellosis in slaughtered hogs. Public Health Rep., 6, 205–208.Google Scholar
  78. McNutt, S. H. (1935) Incidence and importance of brucella infection of swine in packing houses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 86, 183–191.Google Scholar
  79. Mohan, K., Makaya, P. V., Muvavarirwa, P., Matope, G., Mahembe, E. and Pawandiwa, A. (1996) Brucellosis surveillance and control in Zimbabwe: bacteriological and serological investigation in dairy herds. Onderstepoort J Vet Res., 63, 47–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mousa., A. M., Elhag, K. M., Khogali, M. and Sugathan, T. N. (1987) Brucellosis in Kuwait: a clinico-epidemiological study. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 81, 1020–1021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Muriuki, S. S., McDermott, J. J., Arimi, S. M., Mugambi, J. T. and Wamola, I. A. (1997) Criteria for better detection of brucellosis in the Barok District of Kenya. East Afr Med J., 74, 317–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. MZCC (1986) Workshop on brucellosis control in countries of the Mediterranean area and the Arab Peninsula, Amman, 21–23 June 1986, MZCC/Bruc/86. 1.Google Scholar
  83. Ndyabahinduka, D. G. K. (1978) Brucellosis: an increasing public health hazard in Uganda. Ann. 1 st . Super Sanita., 4, 220–234.Google Scholar
  84. Neale, G. (1979) Brucellosis in Ireland - what is happening? J. Irish Med. Assoc., 72, 496–497.Google Scholar
  85. Nicoletti, P. (1980) The epidemiology of bovine brucellosis. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med., 24, 69–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. OIE (Office International des Epizooties) (1983) Animal Health and Economics. Technical Series No. 3.Google Scholar
  87. OIE (Office International des Epizooties) (1985) World Animal Health.Google Scholar
  88. Onyemelukwe, G. C. (1989) Brucellosis in northern Nigerians. West Afr J Med. (Nigeria), 8, 234–240.Google Scholar
  89. Pepin, M., Russo, P. and Pardon, P. (1997) Public Health hazards from small ruminant meat products in Europe. Rev Sci Tech (France), 16, 415–425.Google Scholar
  90. Perez-Bianco, R. and Santarelli, M. T. (1993) Analysis of a national serological survey for diseases transmitted by blood transfusion. Medicina B Aires, 53, 491–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Pfischner, W. C. E., Ishak, K. G., Neptune, E. M. et al. (1957) Brucellosis in Egypt. A review of experience with 228 patients. Am. J. Med., 22, 915–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pike, R. M. (1978) Past and present hazards of working with infec-tious agents. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 102, 333–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Pilet, C. and Person, J. (1983) Incidence sur la brucellose humaine, de la lutte contre la brucellose bovine en France. Cas particulier des étudiants de l’école d’Alfort. Bull. Acad. Nat. Med., 167, 507–604.Google Scholar
  94. Polt, S. S., Dismukes, W. E., Flint, A. and Schaefer, J. (1982) Human brucellosis caused by Brucella canis. Ann. Intern. Med., 97, 717–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Public Health Laboratory Service (1981) Epidemiology. Brucellosis: England and Wales. Br. Med. J., 283, 1477.Google Scholar
  96. Radwan, A. I., Bekairi, S. I. and Prasad, P. V. (1992) Serological and bacteriological study of brucellosis in camels in central Saudi Arabia. Rev Sci Tech (France), 11, 837–844.Google Scholar
  97. Radwan, A. I., Bekairi, S. I., Mukayel, A. A., Al Bokmy, A. M., Prasad, P. V., Azar, F. N. et al. (1995) Control of B. melitensis infection in a large camel herd in Saudi Arabia using antibiotherapy and vaccination with Rev. 1 vaccine. Rev. Sci. Tech., 14, 719–732.Google Scholar
  98. Radwan, A. L., Asmar, J. A., Frerichs, Y. M. et al. (1983) Incidence of brucellosis in domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 15, 139–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Radwan, A. L., Bekair, S. I., Al-Mukayel, A. A. and Osman, S. A. (1984) Occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and sheep handlers in Saudi Arabia. Proc. Sheep Breeders Soc., 6, 595–608.Google Scholar
  100. Ramanna, B. C., Srivastava, L., Suri, J. C. et al. (1982) A sero-epidemiological study of brucellosis in rural and urban populations of North India. J. Commun. Dis., 14, 281–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Reichel, M. P., Baber, D. J., Armitage, P. W., Lampard, D., Whitley, R. S. and Hilbink, F. (1994) Eradication of Brucella ovis from the Falkland Islands, 1977-1993. Vet Rec., 134, 595–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rivero-Puente, A., Maravi Poma, E., CarasU.S.A.n, M. G. et al. (1982) Brucellosis: estudio de 222 casos. Parts I, II, III and V. Rev. Clin. Esp., 166, 54–114.Google Scholar
  103. Robson, J. M., Harrison, M. W., Wood, R. N., Tilse, M. H., McKay, A. B. and Brodribb, T. R. (1993) Brucellosis: re-emergence and changing epidemiology in Queensland. Med J Aust., 159, 153–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Roux, J. (1979) Surveillance des brucelloses humaines en France. Bull. Org. Mond. Santé Publique, 57, 179–194Google Scholar
  105. Ruiz, P., Martinez, T., Simal, E. et al. (1981) Estudio epidemiologico de la brucelosis en la provincia de Soria, periodo 1967-1978. Rev. Sanid. Hig. Publica., 55, 999–1014.Google Scholar
  106. Sabah, A. A., Hussain, Y. M. and Khawagy, M. Z. (1991) Brucellosis in Saudi females. Ann S Med., 2, 245 (Symposia abstract).Google Scholar
  107. Sabbaghian, H. (1975) Fresh white cheese as a source of brucella infection. Public Health (London) 89, 165–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sabbaghian, H. and Nadim, A. (1974) Epidemiology of human bru-cellosis in Isfahan, Iran. J. Hyg., 73, 221–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Staszkiewicz, J., Lewis, C. M., Colville, J., Zervos, M. and Band, J. (1991) Outbreak of B. melitensis among microbiology laboratory workers in a community hospital. J. Clin Microbiol., 29, 287–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Stohr, K. and Meslin, F. X. The role of veterinary public health in the prevention of zoonoses. Arch Virol Suppl (Austria), 13, 207–218.Google Scholar
  111. Stroczynska-Skorska, M., Stojek, N. and Prazmo, Z. (1981) Brucellosis in Poland throughout 1976–1978. Med. Pr., 32, 129–133.Google Scholar
  112. Takahashi, H., Tanaka, s., Yoshida, K., Hoshino, H., Sasaki, H., Takahashi, K. et al. (1996) An unusual case of brucellosis in Japan: difficulties in the differential diagnosis from pulmonary tuberculosis. Intern Med., 35, 310–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Talamante Serrulla, S., Calderon Martinez, C., Cortes Vizcaino C. and Calatayud Sarhou, A. (1991) An epidemiologic study of bru-cellosis in the province of Valencia (1943–1989) Rev Sanid Hig Publica (Madr) (Spain), 65, 259–267.Google Scholar
  114. Tasei, J. P., Ranque, P., Balique, H. et al. (1982) Le brucellose hu- maine au Mali. Resultats d’une enquete sero-epidemiologique. Acta. Trop., 39, 253–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Thimm, B. M. (1972) Brucellosis in Uganda. Part I: The epizootolo- gical and epidemiological situation. An historical review. Bull. Epizoot. Dis. Afr., 20, 43–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Thimm, B. M. (1982) Brucellosis. Distribution in Man, Domestic and Wild Animals. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.Google Scholar
  117. Thimm, B. M. and Wundt, W. (1976) The epidemiological situation of brucellosis in Africa. International Symposium on Brucellosis (II), Rabat, 1975. Dev. Biol. Stand., 31, 201–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Torre, I., Pavia, M. and Angelillo, I. E (1997) A seroepidemiological survey on brucellosis antibodies in Southern Italy. Infect., 3, 20–23Google Scholar
  119. Trout, D., Gomez, T. M., Bernard, B. P., Mueller, C. A., Smith, C. G., Hunter, L. et al. (1995) Outbreak of brucellosis at a United States pork packing plant. JOEM, 37, 697–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Van Rooney, M. M. B. (1981) Brucella-keratokonjunktivitis. S. Afr. Med. J., 60, 206–207.Google Scholar
  121. Vershilova, P. A. and Aslanyan, R. G. (1980) The epidemiologic im-portance of natural foci of brucellosis. Vestn. Akad. Med. Nauk. SSSR, 10, 67–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Volfson, A. G., Vdovenko, S. I. and Afanasyeva, V. N. (1982) Out-break of acute brucellosis in the reindeer-breeding teams at a state farm in the Chukotsk Autonomous Region, USSR. Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol., 7, 91–92.Google Scholar
  123. Wallach, J. C., Samartino, L. E., Efron, A. and Baldi, P. C. (1997) Human infection by B. melitensis: an outbreak attributed to contact with infected goats. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol (Netherlands), 19, 315–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Washko, F. V, Donham, C. R., Hutchings, I. M. and Heimlick, A. (1952) Recovery of Brucella from tissues of cattle exposed to B. abortus. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 120, 82–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Williams, E. (1982) Brucellosis. Practitioner, 226, 1507–1517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Wise, R. I. (1980) Brucellosis in the United States, past, present and future. JAMA, 244, 2318–2322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Young, E. J. (1991) Health issue at the US-Mexican border (letter; comment). JAMA (United States), 265, 2066.Google Scholar
  128. Young, E. J. (1975) Brucellosis outbreak attributed to ingestion of unpasteurized goat cheese. Arch. Intern. Med., 135, 240–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Young, E. J. (1983) Human brucellosis. Rev. Infect. Dis., 5, 821–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zeftawi, N. M., Al Issa, M., Bekairi, S. I., Radwan, A. I. and Hafez, S. M. (1986) epidemiology of brucellosis among abattoir workers in Saudi Arabia. Ann S Med., 4, S-29–S-31.Google Scholar
  131. Zervos, M. J. (1997) Exposure to Brucella in the laboratory. Lancet, 349, 651 (letter).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zoubras, J., Masse, L., Roussey, A. et al. (1977) Sampling survey on brucellosis among farmers and their families in Ille-et-Vilaine (Brittany). Int. J. Epidemiol., 6, 335–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zygadlowska-Ellert, J., Trocj, H. and Gajda, A. (1980) Chronic brucellosis in the author’s observations. Bull. Inst. Marit. Trop. Med. Gdynia, 31, 69–76.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Monir Madkour

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations