Translation and Angulation-Translation Deformities
Translation deformity refers to displacement or ad latus deformity. Translation deformity occurs secondary to fractures and osteotomies. By convention, we describe translation deformity as displacement of the distal segment relative to the proximal segment. This rule applies to the lower and upper extremities from the humeral and femoral necks distally. In the spine, the convention is reversed. The displacement is described as the proximal relative to the distal. The spine convention also applies to the femoral and humeral heads. This will be discussed separately in reference to slipped capital femoral epiphysis deformities (see Chap. 19).
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