Translation and Angulation-Translation Deformities

  • Dror Paley


Translation deformity refers to displacement or ad latus deformity. Translation deformity occurs secondary to fractures and osteotomies. By convention, we describe translation deformity as displacement of the distal segment relative to the proximal segment. This rule applies to the lower and upper extremities from the humeral and femoral necks distally. In the spine, the convention is reversed. The displacement is described as the proximal relative to the distal. The spine convention also applies to the femoral and humeral heads. This will be discussed separately in reference to slipped capital femoral epiphysis deformities (see Chap. 19).


Frontal Plane Plane Translation Wedge Osteotomy Angular Deformity Posterior Translation 
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  2. Green SA, Green HD (1994) The influence of radiographic projection on the appearance of deformities. Orthop Clin North Am 25:467–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Paley D, Tetsworth KD (1993) Deformity correction by the Ilizarov technique. In: Chapman MW (ed) Operative ortho-paedics, vol 1,2nd edn. J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 883–948Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dror Paley
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Rubin Institute for Advanced OrthopedicsSinai HospitalBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.The International Center for Limb LengtheningSinai HospitalBaltimoreUSA

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