Advertisement

Transportation and Air Pollution: The Environmental Damages

Conference paper

Abstract

This paper examines estimates of the damages caused by air pollution emissions from transportation sources. The paper first provides a summary of dollar per gallon air pollution damage estimates from twenty studies. Next, new nationwide estimates of damages associated with air emissions are presented. Finally, three key issues in the estimation of damages are discussed.

Keywords

Road Dust Damage Estimate Diesel Vehicle Volatile Organic Compound Emission Case Study Result 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Apogee Research, Inc. (1994). “The Costs of Transportation, “ Prepared for Conservation Law Foundation, March, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  2. Bickel, P. and R. Friedrich. (1995). Was kostet uns die Mobilitat? Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  3. Burtraw D., A. M. Freeman III, W. Harrington, and A. Krupnick. (1994). “The Social Costing Debate: Issues and Resolutions,” in Social Costs of Energy, O. Hohmeyer and R. Ottinger (eds.), Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  4. Chow, Judith. (1995). “Measurement Methods to Determine Compliance with Ambient Air Quality Standards for Suspended Particles, “ Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 45, 320–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cifuentes, L. and L. Lave. (1995). Association of Daily Mortality and Air Pollution in Philadelphia, 1983–1988, Mimeo, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, draft paper for the NAPAP.Google Scholar
  6. CRS (Congressional Research Service). (1992). The External Costs of Oil Used in Transportation, Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division, 92-574 ENR, Washington, DC, June.Google Scholar
  7. Conservation Law Foundation. (1994). Road Kill, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  8. Cropper, M. L. and U. Subramanian. (1995). Public Choices Between Life-Saving Programs: How Important Are Qualitative Factors Versus Lives Saved? Mimeo, The World Bank, Washington, DC, March.Google Scholar
  9. Davis, Stacy C. (1994). Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 14, Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, MaGoogle Scholar
  10. Dockery D. W., J. Schwartz, and J. D. Spengler. (1992). “Air Pollution and Daily Mortality: Associations with Particulates and Acid Aerosols, “ Environmental Research, 59, 362–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dockery D. W., C. A. Pope III, X. Xu, J. D. Spengler, J. H. Ware, M. E. Fay, B. G. Ferris, Jr., and F. E. Speizer. (1993). “An Association Between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six U.S. Cities, “ The New England Journal of Medicine, 329 (24) 1753–1759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DOE/EIA (U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration). (1991). Petroleum: An Energy Profile, DOE/EIA-0545(91), Office of Oil and Gas, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  13. DOE/EIA (U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration). (1993). State Energy Data Report: Consumption Estimates, 1960–1990, DOE/EIA-0214(90), Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  14. DOE/EIA (U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration). (1994). Annual Energy Outlook with Projections to 2010, DOE/EIA-0383(94), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  15. E. H. Pechan & Associates. (1994). Development of the OPPE Particulate Programs Implementation Evaluation System,prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, Springfield, VA.Google Scholar
  16. European Commission. (1994). Externalities of Fuel Cycles: ExternE Project. Working Documents Nos. 1-9. For the Directorate General XII. Prepared by Metroeconomica, CEPN, IER, Eyre Energy-Environment, ETSU, Ecole des Mines. Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  17. Evans J. S., T. Tosteson, and P. L. Kinney. (1984). “Cross-Sectional Mortality Studies and Air Pollution Risk Assessment,” Environment International, 10, 55–CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fairley, D. (1990). “The Relationship of Daily Mortality to Suspended Particulates in Santa Clara County,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 89, 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fankhauser, S. and D. W. Pearce. (1993). “The Social Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” presented at the International Conference on the Economics of Climate Change, Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development and International Energy Agency, Paris, June 14–16.Google Scholar
  20. Federal Railroad Administration. (1993). Environmental Externalities and Social Costs of Transportation Systems: Measurement, Mitigation, and Costing—An Annotated Bibliography, Washington, DC, August.Google Scholar
  21. Freeman III, A. M. and R. D. Rowe. (1995). “Ranking Electricity Generation Technologies with External Costs,” Electricity Journal, December, 48–53.Google Scholar
  22. French, M. (1988). Efficiency and Equity of a Gasoline Tax Increase, Finance and Economics Discussion Series #33, Federal Reserve Board. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  23. Hanson, Mark. (1992). Results of Literature Survey and Summary of Findings: The Nature and Magnitude of Social Costs of Roadway Use, Resource Management Associates of Madison, Inc. Madison, WI, prepared for the FHWA.Google Scholar
  24. Ito K., P. L. Kinney, and G. D. Thurston. (1995). “Variations in PM10 Concentrations within Two Metropolitan Areas and Their Implications for Health Effects Analyses,” Inhalation Toxicology, 7, 735–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kinney P. L., K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston. (1995). “A Sensitivity Analysis of Mortality/ PM-10 Associations in Los Angeles,” Inhalation Toxicology, 7, 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Khisty, C.J. and P.J. Kaftanski. (1986). “The Social Costs of Traffic Congestion During Peak Periods,” paper presented at the 66th Annual Meeting of the TRB, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  27. Knecht, R. and J. Levine. (1995). Memorandum to Victor Niemeyer, Electric Power Research Institute entitled “Comparisons of AQVM and EXMOD Particulate Modeling Calculations,” March 10.Google Scholar
  28. Komanoff, C. and B. Ketchum. (1992). “Win-Win Transportation: A No-Losers Approach to Financing Transport in New York City and the Region.” Komanoff Energy Associates. Cited in “Incorporation of External Cost Considerations in Highway Cost Allocations,” Battelle, Report to FHWA, September, 1994 BAT-93-009.Google Scholar
  29. Krupnick, A. and D. Burtraw. (Forthcoming). “The Social Cost of Electricity: Do the Numbers Add Up?” Journal of Resource and Energy Economics.Google Scholar
  30. Lang, C, G. Yarwood, F. Lalonde, and R. Bloxam. (1995). Environmental and Health Benefits of Cleaner Vehicles and Fuels,prepared for the Canadian Council of the Environment Task Force on Cleaner Vehicles and Fuels by Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO, September.Google Scholar
  31. Lee R., A. Krupnick, D. Burtraw, et al. (1995). Estimating Externalities of Electric Fuel Cycles: Analytical Methods and Issues, Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles,and additional volumes for other fuel cycles, McGrawHill/Utility Data Institute, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  32. Lipfert, F. W. (1994). Air Pollution and Community Health, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  33. Lippman, M. (1989). “Background on Health Effects of Acid Aerosols,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 7, 3–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. MacKenzie J. J., R. Dower, and D. Chen. (1992). The Going Rate: What It Really Costs to Drive, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  35. Miller, P. and J. Moffet. (1993). The Price of Mobility, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  36. OGJ (Oil and Gas Journal). (1994). Special Edition. World Refining Report, Anne K. Rhodes (ed.).Google Scholar
  37. Ostro, B. D. (In Press). “Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in Two Southern California Counties,” Environmental Research.Google Scholar
  38. Ostro B. D., J. M. Sanchez, C. Aranda, and G. S. Eskeland. (1996). “Air Pollution and Mortality: Results from a Study of Santiago, Chile,” Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology.Google Scholar
  39. Ottinger, R. L. et al. (eds.). (1990.) Environmental Costs of Electricity, Pace University Center for Environmental Legal Studies. White Plains, NY. Oceana Press.Google Scholar
  40. Ozkaynak, H. and G. Thurston. (1987). “Associations Between 1980 U.S. Mortality Rates and Alternative Measures of Airborne Particle Concentration,” Risk Analysis, 7, 449–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ozkaynak H., J. Xue, P. Severance, R. Burnett, and M. Raizenne. (1995). “Associations Between Daily Mortality, Ozone, and Particulate Air Pollution in Toronto, Canada,” Paper presented at the Colloquium on Particulate Air Pollution, Irvine, CA, January 24–25.Google Scholar
  42. Plagiannakos, T. and J. Parker. (1988). An Assessment of Air Pollution Effects on Human Health in Ontario. Ontario Hydro, March.Google Scholar
  43. Pope, CA. III, J. Schwartz, and M. R. Ransom. (1992). “ Daily Mortality and PM10 Pollution in Utah Valley,” Archives of Environmental Health, 47 (3)211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pope, C.A., III. M. J. Thun, M. M. Namboodiri, D. W. Dockery, J. S. Evans, F. E. Speizer, and C. W. Heath, Jr. (1995). “Particulate Air Pollution as a Predictor of Mortality in a Prospective Study of U.S. Adults,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 151, 669–674.Google Scholar
  45. Quinet, E. (1994). “The Social Costs of Transport: Evaluation and Links with Internalization Policies,” Internalizing the Social Costs of Transport, European Conference of Ministers of Transport, OECD, Paris (contains other European study citations).Google Scholar
  46. Rowe R. D., C. M. Lang, L. G. Chestnut, D. Latimer, D. Rae, S. M. Bernow, and D. White. (1995). The New York Environmental Externality Cost Study, Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, NY.Google Scholar
  47. Rowe R. D., C. M. Lang, and L. G. Chestnut. (1996a). “Critical Factors in Estimating Externality Values,” Journal of Resource and Energy Economics, Forthcoming.Google Scholar
  48. Rowe R. D., L. G. Chestnut, C. M. Lang, and B. D. Ostro. (1996b). “Environmental Externalities of Electricity Generation: The Significance of Particulate Matter,” Particulate Matter: Health and Regulatory Issues, Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, Forthcoming, Presented in Pittsburgh, PA, April 4-6, 1995.Google Scholar
  49. Rowe, R. D. J. Smolinsky, and C. M. Lang. (1996c). “The Magnitude of Electricity Externalities through Time,” Social Costs and Sustainability: Valuation and Implementation in the Energy and Transport Sector, O. Hohmeyer, R. Ottinger, and K. Rennings (eds.). Springer-Verlag Press, Berlin, Forthcoming, Presented to the Third International Conference on Externality Costs, Ladenburg, FRG. May 27-30, 1995.Google Scholar
  50. Rowe R. D., L. Bird, J. Epel, and L. Chestnut. (1996d). Externality Benefits from Natural Gas Vehicles in New York, Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc., Report to the New York Gas Group, New York, NY, March.Google Scholar
  51. Savage, Ian. (1993). “An Empirical Investigation into the Effect of Psychological Perceptions on the Willingness-to-Pay to Reduce Risk,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 6(1) 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schwartz, J. (1991). “Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Detroit,” Environmental Research, 56, 204–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schwartz, J. (1993). “Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Birmingham, Alabama,” American Journal of Epidemiology, 137(10) 1136–1147.Google Scholar
  54. Schwartz, J. and D. W. Dockery. (1992a). “Increased Mortality in Philadelphia Associated with Daily Air Pollution Concentrations,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, 145, 600–604.Google Scholar
  55. Schwartz, J. and D. W. Dockery. (1992b). “Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Steubenville, OH,” American Journal of Epidemiology, 135(1) 12–19.Google Scholar
  56. Slovic, P. (1992). “Perception of Risk: Reflections on the Psychometric Paradigm,” In Social Theories of Risk, Sheldon Krimsky and Dominic Golding (eds.). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  57. Slovic P., B. Fischhoff, and S. Lichtenstein. (1985). “Characterizing Perceived Risk,” In Perilous Progress: Managing the Hazards of Technology, Robert W. Kates, Christoph Hohenemser and Jeanne X. Kasperson (eds), Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  58. Small, K. and C. Kazimi. (1994). “On the Costs of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles,” University of California, Irvine, Department of Economics, Irvine Economic Paper No. 94-95-3. September.Google Scholar
  59. Thayer M. A., F. D. Seibold, J. C. Murdoch, and T. A. Mayer. (1994). “The Air Quality Valuation Model,” Prepared by Regional Economic Research, Inc. and TRC Environmental Consultants for the California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA.Google Scholar
  60. U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1993). National Air Pollutant Emission Trends, 1900–1992, EPA-45R-93-032, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC, October.Google Scholar
  61. U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1995a). AP-42 Emissions Factors Data Base, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  62. U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1995b). Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter. Volumes I-III. External Review Draft. Prepared by the Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. April. EPA/600/AP-95/001.Google Scholar
  63. Utell, M. J. and M. W. Frampton. (1995). “Particulates and Mortality: A Clinical Perspective,” Inhalation Toxicology, 7, 645–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Viscusi, W. K. (1992). Fatal Tradeoffs, Public and Private Responsibilities for Risk, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Viscusi, W. K. (1993). “The Value of Risks to Life and Health,” Journal of Economic Literature, 31, 1912–1946.Google Scholar
  66. Wyzga, R. E. and F. W. Lipfert. (1995). Temperature-Pollution Interactions with Daily Mortality in Philadelphia, Draft paper for the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Quality of the Environment DivisionResources for the FutureUSA
  2. 2.Hagler Bailly ConsultingBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations