Advertisement

CFE and the Baltic Rim

  • Jane M. O. Sharp
Chapter

Summary

This chapter explores the different interests of the Baltic Rim states in the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Four states — Denmark, Germany, Poland and Russia — are parties to CFE, as are all members of NATO and the former Warsaw Pact. Finland and Sweden, both neutral and non-aligned throughout the Cold War, are not parties to CFE. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, as member states of the former Soviet Union, were part of the CFE regime from Treaty signature in November 1990 until they achieved independence from Moscow in late 1991. At that time the United States insisted that the three Baltic states opt out of the Treaty. In retrospect the 1991 Baltic opt-out looks misguided, although at the time only Poland and Hungary raised any objections.

Although Mikhail Gorbachev and his Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze were enthusiatic about CFE, Boris Yeltsin and the Russian military have never liked the Treaty. They claim that CFE, was overtaken by events such as the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, and since early 1993 have repeatedly called for radical revisions. The non-Russian parties agreed that CFE should be adapted to new circumtances, but not until after the three year reduction period ended in late 1995. A Review Conference in May 1996 made several concessions to Russia at the expense of neighbouring states, and a CFE Adaptation Conferenece began in Vienna in January 1997. if the three Baltic states want to protect their interest vis-à-vis Russia they would be well advised to rejoin the CFE regime as soon as possible.

Keywords

Foreign Minister Baltic State North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Article Versus Compliance Regime 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asmus, Ronald D. and Nurick, Robert C. (1996). ‘NATO Enlargement and the Baltic States,’ Survival, Summer, pages 121–142.Google Scholar
  2. Boustany, Nora (1996). ‘Sweden Seeking US Support for Baltic Integration Plan,’ International Herald Tribune, 10 August.Google Scholar
  3. Clough, Patricia (1991). ‘Lithuanian Threat to Arms Pact,” The Independent, 7 December.Google Scholar
  4. The Economist (1996). ‘Corridor Collywobbles,’ 4 May, page 36.Google Scholar
  5. Falkenrath, Richard (1996). ‘The Baltic Settlement’ in Kelleher, Catherine M., Sharp, Jane M.O. and Freedman, Lawrence (eds.). The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe: The Politics of Post-Wall Arms Control. Baden-Baden, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.Google Scholar
  6. Final Document of the first conference to review the operation of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe and the Concluding Act of the Negotiation on Personnel Strength Vienna 15–31 May 1996, reprinted in The Arms Control Reporter, pages 407.D.87–97.Google Scholar
  7. Fournier, Sami and Kokkinides, Tasos (1996). ‘East-West Differences May Impede Progress at CFE Review Conference,’ Basic Reports: 52, 13 May.Google Scholar
  8. Girnius, Saulius (1997). ‘Back in Europe to Stay,’ Transition: 3(6), 4 April, pages 7–10.Google Scholar
  9. IISS Strategic Survey 1991–1992.Google Scholar
  10. JCG Working Group B (1996). ‘Document adopted by the States Parties to the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe on the scope and parameters of the process commissioned in paragraph 19 of the Fial Document of the First CFE Review Conference,’ 1 December 1996, Vienna.Google Scholar
  11. Jundzis, Talavs (N.a.) ‘Security Policy Trends in Latvia.’Google Scholar
  12. NATO High Level Task Force (1997). Basic Elements for Adaptation of the CFE Treaty. HLTF (97) 2 (Final), 20 February 1997, Brussels.Google Scholar
  13. Nowak, Jerzy M. 1996 ). ‘The CFE Regime and Its Development: A Polish and Central European Perspective’ in Kelleher, Catherine M., Sharp, Jane M.O. and Freedman, Lawrence (eds.). The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe: The Politics of Post-Wall Arms Control. Baden-Baden, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.Google Scholar
  14. Shulte, Heinz (1994). ‘Germany’s Unfond Farewell to the Russians,’ The Wall Street Journal, 31 August 1994.Google Scholar
  15. Surikov, Anton interview (1995). ‘Who Is Dying to Get under the Wing,’ Sovetskaya Rossiya, 2 November 1995.Google Scholar
  16. Thomas, Richard (1997). ‘US Moves to Quell Baltic NATO Fears,’ The Guardian, 29 March.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jane M. O. Sharp

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations