Advertisement

Vorbemerkungen

  • W. Wagner

Zusammenfassung

In der Neurochirurgie pathologischer Prozesse des Nervensystems kommt es — neben der Behandlung des Prozesses selbst — ganz vordringlich darauf an, die Funktion des Gehirns bzw. des Rückenmarks sowie der Hirnnerven bzw. Spinalnerven zu erhalten (während z. B. in der plastischen Chirurgie eher die Erhaltung der Struktur im Vordergrund steht). Da derartige Eingriffe so gut wie immer in Allgemeinanästhesie stattfinden, ist der Neurochirurg (jedenfalls ohne spezielle Überwachungsmaßnahmen) allerdings darauf angewiesen, die intakte (oder gestörte) nervöse Funktion aus der intakten (bzw. gestörten) nervösen Struktur zu erschließen; d.h. man ist bemüht, die dem pathologischen Prozeß benachbarten, funktionell relevanten Strukturen morphologisch möglichst unversehrt zu lassen.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Alexander LF, Smith RR (1994) Transcranial doppler monitoring in extra-and intracranial vascular surgery. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (Hrsg) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, S 33–44Google Scholar
  2. Alexander TD, Macdonald RL, Weir B, Kowalczuk A (1996) Intraoperative angiography in cerebral aneurysm surgery: A prospective study of 100 craniotomies. Neurosurgery 39: 10–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen A, Starr A, Nudleman K (1981) Assessment of sensory function in the operating room utilizing cerebral evoked potentials: A study of fifty-six surgically anesthetized patients. Clin Neurosurg 28: 457–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berenstein A, Young W, Ransohoff J, Benjamin V, Merkin H (1984) Somatosensory evoked potentials during spinal angiography and therapeutic transvascular embolization. J Neurosurg 60: 777–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berger MS, Ojemann GA (1994) Techniques of functional localization during removal of tumors involving the cerebral hemispheres. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 113–127Google Scholar
  6. Boston JR, Deneault LG, Kronk L, Jannetta PJ (1985) Automated monitoring of brainstem auditory evoked potentials in the operating room. J Clin Monit 1: 161–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Branston NM, Symon L, Crockard HA, Pasztor E (1974) Relationship between the cortical evoked potential and local cortical blood flow following acute middle cerebral artery occlusion in the baboon. Exp Neurol 45: 195–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Branston NM, Ladds A, Symon L, Wang AD (1984) Comparison of the effects of ischaemia on early components of the somatosensory evoked potential in brainstem, thalamus and cerebral cortex. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 4: 68–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calancie B, Harris W, Broton JG, Alexeeva N, Green BA (1998) „Threshold-level“ multipulse transcranial electrical stimulation of motor cortex for intraoperative monitoring of spinal motor tracts: description of method and comparison to somatosensory evoked potential monitoring. J Neurosurg 88: 457–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carter LP (1994) Continuous monitoring of cortical blood flow. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 53–60Google Scholar
  11. Cedzich C, Schramm J, Fahlbusch R (1987) Are flash-evoked visual potentials useful for intraoperative monitoring of visual pathway function? Neurosurgery 21: 709–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cedzich C, Schramm J, Mengedoht CF, Fahlbusch R (1988) Factors that limit the use of flash visual evoked potentials for surgical monitoring. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 71: 142–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cedzich C, Taniguchi M, Schäfer S, Schramm J (1996) Somatosensory evoked potential phase reversal and direct motor cortex stimulation during surgery in and around the central region. Neurosurgery 38: 962–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cedzich C, Pechstein U, Schramm J, Schäfer S (1998) Electrophysiological considerations regarding electrical stimulation of motor cortex and brain stem in humans. Neurosurgery 42: 527–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chatrian GE, Berger MS, Wirch AL (1988) Discrepancy between intraoperative SSEP’s and postoperative function. J Neurosurg 69: 450–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheek JC (1993) Posterior fossa intraoperative monitoring. J Clin Neurophysiol 10: 412–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ciriano D, Sindou M, Fischer C (1991) Apport du monitorage per-opératoire des potentiels évoqués auditifs précoces dans la décompression vasculaire microchirurgicale pour névralgie du trijumeau ou spasme hémifacial. Neurochirurgie 37: 323–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cloughesy TF, Nuwer MR, Hoch D, Vinuela F, Duckwiler G, Martin N (1993) Monitoring carotid test occlusions with continuous EEG and clinical examination. J Clin Neurophysiol 10: 363–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colletti V, Fiorino FG, Policante Z, Bruni L (1996) New perspectives in intraoperative facial nerve monitoring with antodromic potentials. Am J Otol 17: 755–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Colletti V, Fiorino FG, Mocella S, Policante Z (1998) ECochG, CNAP and ABR monitoring during vestibular Schwannoma surgery. Audiology 37: 27–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Critchley GR, O’Neill KS, Bell BA (1998) Cerebral blood flow and tissue oxygenation monitoring during aneurysm surgery. Neurol Res 20 (Suppl 1): S44–S47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Daube JR (1991a) Monitoring of spine surgery with evoked potentials. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daube JR (1991b) Intraoperative monitoring of cranial motor nerves. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 246–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daube JR, Harper CM (1989), Surgical monitoring of cranial and peripheral nerves. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Neuromonitoring in surgery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 115–138Google Scholar
  25. Deletis V, Vodusek DB (1997) Intraoperative recording of the bulbocavernosus reflex. Neurosurgery 40: 88–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Deletis V, Vodusek DB, Abbott R, Epstein FJ, Turndorf H (1992) Intraoperative monitoring of the dorsal sacral roots: Minimizing the risk of iatrogenic micturition disorders. Neurosurgery 30: 72–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Delgado TE, Buchheit WA, Rosenholtz HR, Chrissian S (1979) Intraoperative monitoring of facial muscle evoked responses obtained by intracranial stimulation of the facial nerve. A more accurate technique for facial nerve dissection. Neurosurgery 4: 418–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. DeMonte F, Warf PA, Al-Mefty O (1994) Intraoperative monitoring of the lower cranial nerves during surgery of the jugular foramen and lower clivus. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 205–212Google Scholar
  29. Dinkel M, Kamp HD, Schweiger H (1991) Somatosensorisch evozierte Potentiale in der Karotischirurgie. Anästhesist 40: 72–78Google Scholar
  30. Dinner DS, Lüders H, Lesser RP, Morris HH (1986) Invasive methods of somatosensory evoked potential monitoring. J Clin Neurophysiol 3: 113–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ebeling U, Schmid UD, Reulen HJ (1989) Tumour-surgery within the central motor strip: surgical results with the aid of electrical motor cortex stimulation. Acta Neurochir 101: 100–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ebeling U, Schmid UD, Ying H, Reulen HJ (1992) Safe surgery of lesions near the motor cortex using intra-operative mapping techniques: a report on 50 patients. Acta Neurochir 119: 23–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eisner W, Schmid UD, Reulen H-J, Oeckler R, Olteanu-Nerbe V, Gall C, Kothbauer K (1995) The mapping and continuous monitoring of the intrinsic motor nuclei during brain stem surgery. Neurosurgery 37: 255–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Engler GL, Spielholtz NI, Bernard WN, Danzinger F, Merkin H, Wolff T (1978) Somatosensory evoked potentials during Harrington instrumentation for scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 60: 528–532Google Scholar
  35. Erwin CW, Erwin AC (1993) Up and down the spinal cord: Intraoperative monitoring of sensory and motor spinal cord pathways. J Clin Neurophysiol 10: 425–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Firsching R, Klug N, Borner U, Sanker P (1992) Lesions of the sensorimotor region: Somatosensory evoked potentials and ultrasound guided surgery. Acta Neurochir 118: 87–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fischer C (1989) Brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) monitoring in posterior fossa surgery. In: Desmedt JE (eds) Neuromonitoring in surgery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 191–207Google Scholar
  38. Fischer C, Fischer G (1991) Intraoperative brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) monitoring in acoustic neuroma surgery. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fischer C, Ibanez V, Mauguière F (1985) Monitorage per-opératoire des potentiels évoqués auditifs précoces. Presse Méd 14: 1914–1918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fisher RS, Raudzens P, Nunemacher M (1995) Efficacy of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. J Clin Neurophysiol 12: 97–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fisher III WS, Morawetz RB (1994) Technique of regional cerebral blood flow measurement and relationship of rCBF to other monitoring methods. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 9–18Google Scholar
  42. Friedman WA, Kaplan BJ, Gravenstein D, Rhoton AL (1985) Intraoperative brain-stem auditory evoked potentials during posterior fossa microvascular decompression. J Neurosurg 62: 552–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Friedman WA, Kaplan BL, Day AL, Sypert GW, Curran MT (1987) Evoked potential monitoring during aneurysm operation: observations after fifty cases. Neurosurgery 20: 678–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gentili F, Lougheed WM, Yamashiro K, Corrado C (1985) Monitoring of sensory evoked potentials during surgery of skull base tumours. Can J Neurol Sci 12: 336–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gigli GL, Caramia M, Marciani MG, Zarola F, Lavaroni F, Rossini PM (1987) Monitoring of subcortical and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials during carotid endarterectomy: comparison with stump pressure levels. Electroenceph clin Neurophysiol 68: 424–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grabb PA, Albright AL, Sclabassi RJ, Pollack IF (1997) Continuous intraoperative electromyographic monitoring of cranial nerves during resection of fourth ventricular tumors in children. J Neurosurg 86: 1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grey PL, Moffat DA, Palmer CR, Hardy DG, Baguley DM (1996) Factors which influence the facial nerve outcome in vestibular schwannoma surgery. Clin Otolaryngol 21: 409–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grundy BL (1982) Monitoring of sensory evoked potentials during neurosurgical operations: methods and applications. Neurosurgery 11: 556–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grundy BL (1983) Intraoperative monitoring of sensory-evoked potentials. Anesthesiology 58: 72–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Grundy BL, Jannetta PJ, Procopio PT, Lina A, Boston JR, Doyle E (1982) Intraoperative monitoring of brain-stem auditory evoked potentials. J Neurosurg 57: 674–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Grunert P, Perneczky A, Wagner W, Luft U, Besser R (1993) Intraoperative Kortexstimulation bei Tumorresektionen in funktionell bedeutsamen Hirnregionen. EEG-Labor 15: 197–204Google Scholar
  52. Guérit JM, Witdoeckt C, de Tourtchaninoff M, Ghariani S, Matta A, Dion R, Verhelst R (1997) Somatosensory evoked potential monitoring in carotid surgery. I. Relationships between qualitative SEP alterations and intraoperative events. Electroenceph clin Neurophysiol 104: 459–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hacke W (1989) Evoked potentials monitoring in interventional neuroradiology. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Neuromonitoring in surgery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 331–342Google Scholar
  54. Haglund MM, Berger MS, Shamseldin M, Lettich E, Ojemann GA (1994) Cortical localization of temporal lobe language sites in patients with gliomas. Neurosurgery 34: 567–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hahn JF, Latchaw JP (1983) Evoked potentials in the operating room. Clin Neurosurg 31: 389–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Haines SJ, Torres F (1991) Intraoperative monitoring of the facial nerve during decompressive surgery for hemifacial spasm. J Neurosurg 74: 254–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hardy RW, Kinney SE, Lueders H, Lesser RP (1982) Preservation of cochlear nerve function with the aid of brain stem auditory evoked potentials. Neurosurgery 11: 16–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hashimoto L, Ishiyama Y, Totsuka G, Mizutani H (1980) Monitoring brainstem function during posterior fossa surgery with brainstem auditory evoked potentials. In: Barber C (ed) Evoked Potentials. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Haupt WF, Horsch S (1992) Evoked potential monitoring in carotid surgery: a review of 994 cases. Neurology 42: 835–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Haupt WF, Erasmi-Korber H, Lanfermann H (1994) Intraoperative recording of parietal SEP can miss hemodynamic infarction during carotid endarterectomy: a case study. Electroenceph clin Neurophysiol 92: 86–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Herholz K, Reulen H-J, von Stockhausen H-M, Thiel A, Ilmberger J, Kessler J, Eisner W, Yousry TA, Heiss W-D (1997) Preoperative activation and intraoperative stimulation of language-related areas in patients with glioma. Neurosurgery 41: 1253–1262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hinrichs H, Heinze HJ, Gaab MR (1992) Neurophysiologisches Monitoring bei neurochirurgischen Gefäßoperationen: Spezifische technische Anforderungen und deren Umsetzung. Z EEG-EMG 23: 195–202Google Scholar
  63. Isu T, Kamada K, Mabuchi S, Kitaoka A, Ito T, Koiwa M, Abe H (1996) Intra-operative monitoring by facial electromyographic responses during microvascular decompressive surgery for hemifacial spasm. Acta Neurochir 138: 19–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. James HE, Mulcahy JJ, Walsh JW, Kaplan GW (1979) Use of anal sphincter electromyography during operations on the conus medullaris and sacral nerve roots. Neurosurgery 4: 521–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jannetta PJ (1977) Observations on the etiology of trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, acoustic nerve dysfunction, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Definite microsurgical treatment and results in 117 patients. Neurochirurgie 20: 145–154Google Scholar
  66. Jannetta PJ (1991) Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials in microvascular decompression operations: influeince on surgical strategy. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jones SJ (1988) Normal and pathologic factors affecting sensory tract potentials in the human spinal cord during surgery. In: Grundy BL, Villani RM (eds) Evoked potentials. Intraoperative and ICU monitoring. Springer Wien, pp 53–62Google Scholar
  68. Jones SJ, Boyd SM, Hetreed M, Smith NJ (Hrsg) (1994) Handbook of spinal cord monitoring. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  69. Jones SJ, Harrison R, Koh KF, Mendoza N, Crockard HA (1996) Motor evoked potential monitoring during spinal surgery: responses of distal limb muscles to transcranial cortical stimulation with pulse trains. Electroenceph clin Neurophysiol 100: 375–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kálmánchey R, Avila A, Symon L (1986) The use of brainstem auditory evoked potentials during posterior fossa surgery as a monitor of brainstem function. Acta Neurochir 82: 128–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Katsuta T, Morioka T, Fujii K, Fukui M (1993) Physiological localization of the facial colliculus during direct surgery on an intrinsic brain stem lesion. Neurosurgery 32: 861–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. King RB, Schell GR (1987) Cortical localization and monitoring during cerebral operations. J Neurosurg 67: 210–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kliot M, Slimp J (1994) Techniques for assessment of peripheral nerve function at surgery. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 275–285Google Scholar
  74. Koos W, Day JD, Matula C, Levy DI (1998) Neurotopographic considerations in the microsurgical treatment of small acoustic neurinomas. J Neurosurg 88: 506–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kothbauer K, Schmid UD, Seiler RW, Eisner W (1994) Intraoperative motor and sensory monitoring of the cauda equina. Neurosurgery 34: 702–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kothbauer K, Deletis V, Epstein FJ (1997) Intraoperative spinal cord monitoring for intramedullary surgery: an essential adjunct. Pediatr Neurosurg 26: 247–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Koyanagi I, Iwasaki Y, Isu T, Abe H, Akino M, Kuroda S (1993) Spinal cord evoked potential monitoring after spinal cord stimulation during surgery of spinal cord tumors. Neurosurgery 33: 451–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Krieger D, Adams HP, Albert F, van Haken M, Hacke W (1992) Pure motor hemiparesis with stable somatosensory evoked potential monitoring during aneurysm surgery: case report. Neurosurgery 31: 145–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lam AM, Manninen PH, Ferguson GG, Nantau W (1991) Monitoring electrophysiologic function during carotid endarterectomy: a comparison of somatosensory evoked potentials and conventional electroencephalogram. Anesthesiology 75: 15–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lesser RP, Raudzens P, Lüders H, Nuwer MR, Goldie WD, Morris III HH, Dinner DS, Klem G, Hahn JF, Shetter AG, Ginsburg HH, Gurd AR (1986) Postoperative neurological deficits may occur despite unchanged intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials. Ann Neurol 19: 22–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Levine RA (1991) Monitoring auditory evoked potentials during cerebellopontine angle tumor surgery: relative value of electrocochleography, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and cerebellopontine angle recordings. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 191–204Google Scholar
  82. Levine RA, Ronner SF, Ojemann RG (1994) Auditory evoked potential and other neurophysiologic monitoring techniques during tumor surgery in the cerebellopontine angle. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 175–191Google Scholar
  83. Levy WJ, Kraus KH, Gugino LD, Ghaly RF, Amassian V, Cadwell J (1994) Transcranial magnetic evoked potential monitoring. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 251–255Google Scholar
  84. Little JR, Lesser RP, Lueders H, Furlan AJ (1983) Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in posterior circulation surgery. Neurosurgery 12: 496–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Little JR, Lesser RP, Lüders H (1987) Electrophysiological monitoring during basilar artery aneurysm operation. Neurosurgery 20: 421–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Loftus CM (1994) Microvascular Doppler in Cerebrovascular Surgery. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 73–76Google Scholar
  87. Lueders H, Lesser RP, Hahn J, Dinner DS, Klem G (1983) Cortical somatosensory evoked potentials in response to hand stimulation. J Neurosurg 58: 885–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Luft U, Grunert P, Wagner W, Perneczky A (1993) Intraoperativer Einsatz der Aphasiediagnostik bei Patienten mit Prozessen im kortikalen Sprachzentrum. Sprache Stimme Gehör 17: 105–107Google Scholar
  89. Lumenta CB, Krämer M, Bock WJ, Lappe M, Link A (1984) Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) during and after posterior fossa operations. Adv Neurosurg 12: 247–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lumenta CB, Herdmann J, v. Tempelhoff W, Hamacher J, Schüren M (1991a) Intraoperatives Monitoring mit evozierten Potentialen bei spinalen Eingriffen. Zentralbl Neurochir 52: 49–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lumenta CB, Krämer M, von Tempelhoff W, Hamacher J (1991b) Brainstem auditory evoked potential monitoring related to morbidity and mortality in basal and posterior fossa tumors. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 283–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Magliulo G, Zardo F (1997) Intra-operative facial nerve monitoring. Its predictive value after skull base surgery. J Laryngol Otol 111: 715–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Magliulo G, Zardo F (1998) Facial nerve function after cerebellopontine angle surgery and prognostic value of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring: a critical evaluation. Am J Otolaryngol 19: 102–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Malis LI (1995) Intra-operative monitoring is not essential. Clin Neurosurg 42: 203–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Markand ON (1994) Continuous assessment of cerebral function with EEG and somatosensory evoked potential techniques during extracranial vascular reconstruction. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 19–32Google Scholar
  96. Matsuda H, Shimazu A (1989) Intraoperative spinal cord monitoring using electric responses to stimulation of caudal spinal cord or motor cortex. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Neuromonitoring in surgery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 175–190Google Scholar
  97. Matthies C, Samii M (1997a) Direct brainstem recording of auditory evoked potentials during vestibular schwannoma resection: nuclear BAEP recording. J Neurosurg 86: 1057–1062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Matthies C, Samii M (1997b) Management of vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas): The value of neurophysiology for intraoperative monitoring of auditory function in 200 cases. Neurosurgery 40: 459–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Mauguière F, Ibáñez V, Turano G, Garassus P (1994) Les explorations neurophysiologiques dans les tumeurs intramédullaires. Neurochirurgie 40 (Suppl 1): 31–40Google Scholar
  100. Mizoi K, Yoshimoto T (1993) Permissible temporary occlusion time in aneurysm surgery as evaluated by evoked potential monitoring. Neurosurgery 33: 434–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mochida K, Komori H, Okawa A, Shinomiya K (1997) Evaluation of motor function during thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal surgery based on motor-evoked potentials using train spinal stimulation. Spine 22: 1385–1393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Momma F, Wang A-D, Symon L (1987) Effects of temporary arterial occlusion on somatosensory evoked responses in aneurysm surgery. Surg Neurol 27: 343–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Møller AR (1991a) The cranial nerve vascular compression syndrome: I. A review of treatment. Acta Neurochir 113: 18–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Møller AR (1991b) The cranial nerve vascular compression syndrome: IL A review of pathophysiology. Acta Neurochir 113: 24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Møller AR (1994) Monitoring techniques in cavernous sinus surgery. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 141–155Google Scholar
  106. Møller AR (1995) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Harwood Academic Publishers, LuxemburgGoogle Scholar
  107. Møller AR, Jannetta PJ (1983) Monitoring auditory functions during cranial nerve microvascular decompression operations by direct recording from the eighth nerve. J Neurosurg 59: 493–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Møller AR, Jannetta PJ (1984) Preservation of facial function during removal of acoustic neuromas. Use of monopolar constant-voltage stimulation and EMG. J Neurosurg 61: 757–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Møller AR, Jannetta PJ (1987) Monitoring facial EMG responses during microvascular decompression operations for hemifacial spasm. J Neurosurg 66: 681–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Møller AR, Jannetta PJ (1994) Monitoring techniques for microvascular decompression procedures. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 163–174Google Scholar
  111. Møller AR, Jho HD, Jannetta PJ (1994) Preservation of hearing in operations on acoustic tumors: An alternative to recording Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potentials. Neurosurgery 34: 688–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Moritz S (1997) Zum Problem der Spezifität und Sensitivität von Potentialänderungen sowie der Warngrenzen im intraoperativen Monitoring evozierter Potentiale bei neurochirurgischen Eingriffen. Med. Dissertation, MainzGoogle Scholar
  113. Morota N, Deletis V , Epstein FJ, Kofler M, Abbott R, Lee M, Ruskin K (1995) Brain stem mapping: neurophysiological localization of motor nuclei on the floor of the fourth ventricle. Neurosurgery 37: 922–930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Morota N, Deletis V, Constantini S, Kofler M, Cohen H, Epstein FJ (1997) The role of motor evoked potentials during surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Neurosurgery 41: 1327–1336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nakasu Y (1989) Evaluation of somatosensory evoked potentials in temporary occlusion of cerebral artery. 2. Intraoperative monitoring during internal carotid and middle cerebral artery aneurysm surgery. Arch Jpn Chir 58: 206–216Google Scholar
  116. Nash CL, Lorig RA, Schatzinger LA, Brown RH (1977) Spinal cord monitoring during operative treatment of the spine. Clin Orthop 126: 100–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Neumann HJ (1998) Mikrodissektion und Neuromonitoring des Nervus recurrens. 10. Arbeitstagung Neurophysiologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie, 25.–26. September 1998, WürzburgGoogle Scholar
  118. Nieuwenhuys R, Voogd J, van Huijzen C (1988) The human central nervous system. A synopsis and atlas, 3. Aufl. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  119. Nissen AJ, Sikand A, Curto FS, Welsh JE, Gardi J (1997) Value of intraoperative threshold stimulus in predicting postoperative facial nerve function after acoustic tumor resection. Am J Otol 18: 249–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Nuwer MR (1986) Evoked potential monitoring in the operating room. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  121. Nuwer M (1989) Monitoring spinal cord surgery with cortical somatosensory evoked potentials In: Desmedt JE (ed): Neuromonitoring in surgery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 151–164Google Scholar
  122. Nuwer MR (1990) Electrophysiologic evaluation and monitoring of spinal cord and root function. Neurosurg Clinics North America 1: 533–549Google Scholar
  123. Nuwer MR (1993) Intraoperative electroencephalography. J Clin Neurophysiol 10: 437–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Nuwer MR, Daube J, Fischer C, Schramm J, Yingling CD (1993) Neuromonitoring during surgery. Report of an IFCN committee. Electroenceph clin Neurophysiol 87: 263–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Nuwer MR, Dawson EG, Carlson LG, Kanim LEA, Sherman JE (1995) Somatosensory evoked potential spinal cord monitoring reduces neurologic deficits after scoliosis surgery: results of a large multicenter survey. Electroenceph clin Neurophysiol 96: 6–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Oberle JW, Antoniadis G, Rath SA, Richter HP (1997) Value of nerve action potentials in the surgical management of traumatic nerve lesions. Neurosurgery 41: 1337–1344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ogata N, Fournier J-Y, Imhof H-G, Yonekawa Y (1996) Thermal diffusion blood flow monitoring during aneurysm surgery. Acta Neurochir 138: 726–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ojemann RG, Levine RA, Montgomery WM, McGaffigan P (1984) Use of intraoperative auditory evoked potentials to preserve hearing in unilateral acoustic neuroma removal. J Neurosurg 61: 938–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ojemann G, Ojemann J, Lettich E, Berger M (1989) Cortical language localization in left, dominant hemisphere. J Neurosurg 71: 316–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Palatinsky E, DiScenna A, McDonald H, Whittingham T, Selman W (1994) SSEP and BAEP monitoring of temporary clip application and induced hypotension during cerebrovascular surgery. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 61–71Google Scholar
  131. Pechstein U, Cedzich C, Nadstawek J, Schramm J (1996) Transcranial high-frequency repetitive electrical stimulation for recording myogenic motor evoked potentials with the patient under general anesthesia. Neurosurgery 39: 335–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Pechstein U, Zentner J, Van Roost D, Schramm J (1997) Surgical management of brain-stem cavernomas. Neurosurg Rev 20: 87–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Pechstein U, Nadstawek J, Zentner J, Schramm J (1998a) Isoflurane plus nitrous oxide versus propofol for recording of motor evoked potentials after high frequency repetitive electrical stimulation. Electroenceph clin Neurophysiol 108: 175–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Pechstein U, Scheufler K-M, Schulze-Bonhage A, Thees C, Nadstawek J, Zentner J (1998b) Hochfrequente repetitive magnetische Stimulation: Fazilitationsmechanismen bei wachen und anästhesierten Patienten. 10. Arbeitstagung Neurophysiologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie, 25.–26. September 1998, WürzburgGoogle Scholar
  135. Péréon Y, Bernard JM, Fayet G, Delecrin J, Passuti N, Guihéneuc P (1998) Usefulness of neurogenic motor evoked potentials for spinal cord monitoring: findings in 112 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for spinal deformity. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 108: 17–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Piatt JH, Radtke RA, Erwin CW (1985) Limitations of brain stem auditory evoked potentials for intraoperative monitoring during a posterior fossa operation: case report and technical note. Neurosurgery 16: 818–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Prass RL, Lüders H (1986) Acoustic (loudspeaker) facial electromyographic monitoring: part 1. Evoked electromyographic activity during acoustic neuroma resection. Neurosurgery 19: 392–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Radtke RA, Erwin CW, Wilkins RH (1989) Intraoperative brainstem auditory evoked potentials: Significant decrease in postoperative morbidity. Neurology 39: 187–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Raudzens PA (1982) Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials. Ann NY Acad Sci 388: 308–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Raudzens PA, Shetter AG (1982) Intraoperative monitoring of brain-stem auditory evoked potentials. J Neurosurg. 57: 341–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Reulen HJ, Schmid UD, Ilmberger J, Eisner W, Bise K (1997) Tumorchirurgie im Sprachkortex in Lokalanästhesie. Nervenarzt 68: 813–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Richmond IL, Mahla M (1985) Use of antidromic recording to monitor facial nerve function intraoperatively. Neurosurgery 16: 458–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Robertson SC, Traynelis VC, Yamada TT (1994) Identification of the sensorimotor cortex with SSEP phase reversal. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 107–111Google Scholar
  144. Sachs L (1992) Angewandte Statistik, 7. Aufl. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sako K, Nakai H, Kawata Y, Takizawa K, Satho M, Yonemasu Y (1998) Temporary arterial occlusion during anterior communicating or anterior cerebral artery aneurysm operation under tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potential monitoring. Surg Neurol 49: 316–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Samii M, Matthies C (1997) Management of 1000 vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas): the facial nerve — preservation and restitution of function. Neurosurgery 40: 684–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Schlake H-P, Goldbrunner R, Milewski C, Siebert M, Behr R, Riemann R, Helms J, Roosen K (1999) Technical developments in intra-operative monitoring for the preservation of cranial motor nerves and hearing in skull base surgery. Neurol Res 21, in pressGoogle Scholar
  148. Schmid UD, Sturzenegger M, Ludin HP, Seiler RW, Reulen HJ (1988) Orthodromic (intra/extracranial) neurography to monitor facial nerve function intraoperatively. Neurosurgery 22: 945–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Schmid UD, Gall C, Schröck E, Ilmberger J, Noachtar S, Eisner W, Reulen H-J (1995) Funktionskontrollierte Neurochirurgie. Nervenarzt 66: 582–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Schramm J (1985) Spinal Cord Monitoring: Current Status and New Developments. Central Nervous System Trauma 2: 207–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Schramm J (1989) Intraoperative monitoring with evoked potentials in cerebral vascular surgery and posterior fossa surgery. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Neuromonitoring in surgery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 243–262Google Scholar
  152. Schramm J, Jones SJ (1985) Spinal Cord Monitoring. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schramm J, Kurthen M (1992) Recent developments in neurosurgical spinal cord monitoring. Paraplegia 30: 609–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Schramm J, Mokrusch T, Fahlbusch R, Hochstetter A (1988) Detailed analysis of intraoperative changes monitoring brain stem acoustic evoked potentials. Neurosurgery 22: 694–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Schramm J, Koht A, Schmidt G, Pechstein U, Tanigushi M, Fahlbusch R (1990) Surgical and electrophysiological observations during clipping of 134 aneurysms with evoked potential monitoring. Neurosurgery 26: 61–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Schramm J, Zentner J, Pechstein U (1994) Intraoperative SEP monitoring in aneurysm surgery. Neurol Res 16: 20–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Sclabassi RJ, Kalia KK, Sekhar L, Jannetta PJ (1993) Assessing brain stem function. Neurosurg Clinics North America 4: 415–431Google Scholar
  158. Sekiya T, Hatayama T, Iwabuchi T, Maeda S (1992) A ring electrode to record extraocular muscle activities during skull base surgery. Acta Neurochir 117: 66–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sekiya T, Hatayama T, Iwabuchi T, Maeda S (1993) Intraoperative recordings of evoked extraocular muscle activities to monitor ocular motor nerve function. Neurosurgery 32: 227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sindou M, Fobé JL, Ciriano D, Fischer C (1990) Intraoperative brainstem auditory evoked potential in the microvascular decompression of the Vth and VIIth cranial nerves. Rev Laryngol 111: 427–431Google Scholar
  161. Sindou M, Ciriano D, Fischer C (1991) Lessons from brainstem auditory evoked potentials monitoring during microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sindou M, Fischer C, Derraz S, Keravel Y, Palfi S (1996) La décompression vasculaire microchirurgicale dans le traitement du spasme hémifacial. Étude rétrospective d’une série de 65 cas et revue de la literature. Neurochirurgie 42: 17–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Soulier MJ, Fraysse B, Lazorthes Y, Da Motta M (1985) Potentiels évoqués auditifs peropératoires dans la chirurgie de la fosse postérieure. Neurochirurgie 31: 519–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Soustiel JF, Hafner H, Chistyakov V, Guilburd JN, Zaaroor M, Yussim E, Feinsod M (1993) Monitoring of brain-stem trigeminal evoked potentials. Clinical applications in posterior fossa surgery. Electroenceph clin Neurophysiol 88: 255–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Stephen JP, Sullivan MR, Hicks RG, Burke DJ, Woodforth IJ, Crawford MR (1996) Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation in children using simultaneous motor and somatosensory evoked potential monitoring. Spine 21: 2450–2457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Strauss C, Romstöck J, Nimsky C, Fahlbusch R (1993) Intraoperative identification of motor areas of the rhomboid fossa using direct stimulation. J Neurosurg 79: 393–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Strauss C, Fahlbusch R, Nimsky C, Cedzich C (1994a) Monitoring of visual evoked potentials during para-and suprasellar procedures. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 135–140Google Scholar
  168. Strauss C, Romstöck J, Fahlbusch R (1994b) Intraoperative mapping of the floor of the IVth ventricle. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 213–218Google Scholar
  169. Sundt TM, Sharbrough FW, Anderson RE, Michenfelder JD (1974) Cerebral blood flow measurements and electroencephalograms during carotid endarterectomy. J Neurosurg 41: 310–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Sundt TM, Sharbrough FW, Piepgras DG, Kearns TP, Messick JM, O’Fallon WM (1981) Correlation of cerebral blood flow and electroencephalographic changes during carotid endarterectomy. Mayo Clin Proc 56: 533–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Symon L, Jellinek DA (1991a) Experiences with intraoperative temporary vessel occlusions and monitoring in aneurysm surgery. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 162–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Symon L, Jellinek DA (1991b) Monitoring of auditory function in acoustic neuroma surgery. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Symon L, Murota T (1989) Intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials during intracranial vascular surgery. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Neuromonitoring in Surgery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 263–274Google Scholar
  174. Symon L, Wang AD, Costa e Silva IE, Gentili F (1984) Perioperative use of somatosensory evoked responses in aneurysm surgery. J Neurosurg 60: 269–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Tamaki T (1989) Spinal cord monitoring with spinal potentials evoked by direct direct stimulation of the spinal cord. In: Desmedt JE (ed): Neuromonitoring in surgery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989, pp 139–149Google Scholar
  176. Taniguchi M, Cedzich C, Schramm J (1993a) Modification of electric cortical stimulation technique for motor evoked potential monitoring under general anesthesia: technical description. Neurosurgery 32: 219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Taniguchi M, Nadstawek J, Langenbach U, Bremer F, Schramm J (1993b) Effects of four intravenous anesthetic agents on motor evoked potentials elicited by magnetic transcranial stimulation. Neurosurgery 33: 407–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Terrell JE, Kileny PR, Yian C, Esclamado RM, Bradford CR, Pillsbury MS, Wolf GT (1997) Clinical outcome of continuous facial nerve monitoring during primary parotidectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 123: 1081–1087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Todd MM (1994) Anesthetic techniques for evaluation of spinal surgery patients. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 227–229Google Scholar
  180. Traynelis VC, Gantz BJ (1994) Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. In: Loftus CM, Traynelis VC (eds) Intraoperative monitoring techniques in neurosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 157–162Google Scholar
  181. Trojaborg W, Boysen G (1973) Relation between EEG, regional cerebral blood flow and internal carotid artery pressure during carotid endarterectomy. Electroenceph clin Neurophysiol 34: 61–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Tsubokawa T (1991) Intraoperative monitoring of corticospinal motor evoked potentials in neurosurgical operations. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 106–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Uematsu S, Tolo VT (1981) Recording of the somatosensory evoked potentials during surgery for scoliosis and midline myelotomy to monitor spinal cord function. Electromyogr clin Neurophysiol 21: 253–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Ungersböck K, Tenckhoff D, Heimann A, Wagner W, Kempski OS (1995) Transcranial doppler and cortical microcirculation at increased intracranial pressure and during the cushing response: an experimental study on rabbits. Neurosurgery 36: 147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Wagner W (1996) Die Bedeutung einer differenzierenden Ableitung subkortikaler somatosensibel evozierter Potentiale (SEP) in der Neurochirurgie. Zbl Neurochir 57: 89–96Google Scholar
  186. Wagner W, Peghini-Halbig L, Mäurer JC, Perneczky A (1994) Intraoperative SEP monitoring in neurosurgery around the brain stem and cervical spinal cord: differential recording of subcortical components. J Neurosurg 81: 213–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wagner W, Perneczky A, Maurer JC, Hüwel N (1995) Intraoperative monitoring of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in cervical syringomyelia: analysis of 28 cases. Minim Invas Neurosurg 38: 27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Watanabe E, Schramm J, Schneider W (1989) Effect of a subdural air collection on the sensory evoked potential during surgery in the sitting position. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 74: 194–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Wedekind C, Klug N (1996) F-Wave recordings from nasal muscle for intraoperative monitoring of facial nerve function. Zentralbl Neurochir 57: 184–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Witdoeckt C, Ghariani S, Guérit JM (1997) Somatosensory evoked potential monitoring in carotid surgery. II. Comparison between qualitative and quantitative scoring systems. Electroenceph clin Neurophysiol 104: 328–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Witzmann A, Reisecker F (1989) Somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials monitoring in tumor removal and brainstem surgery. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Neuromonitoring in surgery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 219–241Google Scholar
  192. Witzmann A, Beran H, Huber A, Fischer J (1991) Somatosensory evoked potential monitoring in tumor and brainstem surgery. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 227–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Wood CC, Spencer DD, Allison T, McCarthy G, Williamson PD, Goff WR (1988) Localization of human sensorimotor cortex during surgery by cortical surface recording of somatosensory evoked potentials. J Neurosurg 68: 99–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Young W, Mollin D (1989) Intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring of spinal surgery. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Neuromonitoring in surgery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 165–173Google Scholar
  195. Zentner J (1989a) Non-invasive motor evoked potential monitoring during neurosurgical operations of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery 24: 709–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Zentner J (1989b) Scalp recorded somatosensory evoked potentials in response to cauda equina stimulation in neurosurgical operations on the spinal cord. Br J Neurosurg 3: 39–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Zentner J (1991a) Motor evoked potential monitoring during neurosurgical operations on the spinal cord. Neurosurg Rev 14: 29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Zentner J (1991b) Motor evoked potential monitoring in operations of the brainstem and posterior fossa. In: Schramm J, Møller AR (eds) Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Springer, Berlin, pp 95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Zentner J, Ebner A (1989) Nitrous oxide suppresses the electromyographic response evoked by electrical stimulation of the motor cortex. Neurosurgery 24: 60–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Zentner J, Schumacher M, Bien S (1988) Motor evoked potentials during interventional neuroradiology. Neuroradiology 30: 252–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Wagner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations