Some evidence of the relative efficiency of multiple-instrument policies for controlling agricultural nonpoint pollution: an application to nitrate pollution

  • Athanasios Kampas
  • Ben White
Conference paper
Part of the Contributions to Economics book series (CE)


Controlling water pollution from agriculture is intrinsically difficult. In most cases, pollution occurs over a wide area and its sources are diffuse and difficult to identify. In addition, water pollution levels can vary substantially over space and time, and depend not only on rainfall pattern and land type, but also on farmers’ decisions. These decisions include land use choices, crop choices, production techniques and the intensity of inputs used. Under the conventional assumption of farmers’ rationality,1 such decisions are determined by relative prices as well as by government support policies.


Abatement Cost Chance Constraint Nonpoint Pollution Nitrate Loss Nitrate Directive 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanasios Kampas
    • 1
  • Ben White
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Economics and Food MarketingUniversity of NewcastleNewcastle upon TyneUK

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