Rainfall and Flow Forecasting Using Weather Radar

  • R. J. Moore
Part of the Environmental Science book series (ESE)


Weather radar networks operated by national meteorological agencies are well serviced in the primary meteorological requirement of daily weather reporting and forecasting. Visual images of the spatial extent and propagation of storms provided by radar are now a familiar feature of such reporting on television. However, the need for quantitative estimates of rainfall to support applications in hydrology and water resources, especially flood forecasting, has not been so well serviced. Hydrologists and meteorologists have sought to improve the reliability of weather radar and to develop “radar hydrology” products characterised by greater resolution in space and time and improved quantitative accuracy.


Radar Data Digital Terrain Model Liquid Water Content Flood Forecast Flow Forecast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderl B, Attmannspacher W, Schulz GA (1976) Accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasts based on radar rainfall measurements. Wat Resources Research 12(2):217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell VA, Carrington DS, Moore RJ (1994) Rainfall forecasting using a simple advected cloud model with weather radar, satellite infra-red and surface weather observations: An initial appraisal under UK conditions. Institute of HydrologyGoogle Scholar
  3. Beven KJ, Kirkby MJ (1979) A physically based, variable contributing area model of basin hydrology. Hydrol Sci Bull 24(1):43–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beven KJ, Wood EF (1983) Catchment geomorphology and the dynamics of runoff contributing areas. J Hydrology 65:139–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boorman DB, Hollis J, Lilly A (1991) The production of the hydrology of soil types (HOST) data set. BHS 3rd National Symp., Southampton, 6.7–6.13, British Hydrological SocietyGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown R, Newcomb PD, Cheung-Lee J, Ryall G (1994) Development and evaluation of the forecast step of the FRONTIERS short-term precipitation forecasting system. J Hydrol 158:79–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Browning KA, Collier CG (1989) Nowcasting of precipitation systems. Rev Geoph 27(3):345–37oCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpenter KM, Browning KA (1984) Progress with a system for nowcasting rain. Preprint vol Nowcasting II, 3–7 September, Norrkoping Sweden, ESA SP-208, pp 427–432Google Scholar
  9. Chander S, Fattorelli S (1991) Adaptive grid-square-based geometrically distributed flood-forecasting model. In: Cluckie ID, Collier CG (eds) Hydrological applications of weather radar, Ellis Horwood, pp 424–439Google Scholar
  10. Chen Z, Kavvas ML (1992) An automated method for representing, tracking and forecasting rainfall fields of severe storms by Doppler weather radars. J Hydrol 132:179–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cluckie ID, Collier CG (eds) (1991) Hydrological applications of weather radar. Ellis Horwood, 644 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Collier CG (1989) Weather radar forecasting. In: Weather radar and the water industry: Opportunities for the 199os. British Hydrological Society Occasional Paper N° 2, pp 35–55Google Scholar
  13. Collinge VK, Kirby C (eds) (1987) Weather radar and flood forecasting. J Wiley, 296 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Conway BJ (1987) FRONTIERS: an operational system for nowcasting precipitation. Proc. Symp. On Mesoscale Analysis and Forecasting, Vancouver,17–19 August 1987, Special Pub. No. ESA SP-282, European Space Agency, pp 233–238Google Scholar
  15. Conway BJ (1989) Expert systems and weather forecasting. Met Mag 118:23–30Google Scholar
  16. Dixon M, Wiener G (1993) TITAN: Thunderstorm identification, tracking, analysis and nowcasting - a radar-based methodology. J Atmos Oceanic Technol 10(6):785–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Einfalt T, Denoeux T, Jacquet G (1990) A radar rainfall forecasting method designed for hydrological purposes. J of Hydrology 114:229–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. French MN, Krajewski WF (1994) A model for real-time quantitative rainfall forecasting using remote sensing: 1. Formulation. Wat Resourc Res 30(4):1075–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Georgakakos KP, Bras KL (1984) A hydrologically useful station precipitation model, Part I: Formulation. Wat Resourc Res 2o(11):1597–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Golding BW (1990). The Meteorological Office mesoscale model. Meteorol Mag 119:81–86Google Scholar
  21. Institute of Hydrology (1992) PDM: A generalised rainfall-runoff model for real-time use. Developers Training Course, National Rivers Authority River Flow Forecasting System, Version 1.0, Institute of Hydrology, 26 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Joss J, Waldvogel A (1990) Precipitation measurement and hydrology. In: Atlas D (ed) Radar in Meteorology. Battan Memorial and 4oth Anniversary Radar. Meteorology Conference, pp 577–606Google Scholar
  23. Kessler E (1969) On the distribution and continuity of water substance in atmospheric circulation, Meteorol Monogr 10, 86 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee TH, Georgakakos KP (1991) A stochastic-dynamical model for short-term quantitative rainfall prediction. Iowa Inst. Hydr. Res. Report N° 349, University of Iowa, 247 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Lilly DK (1990) Numerical prediction of thunderstorms - has its time come? Quart J Roy Met Soc 116:779–798Google Scholar
  26. Lorenz EN (1969) The predictability of a flow which possesses many scales of motion. Tellus, XXI 3:289–307Google Scholar
  27. Lorenz EN (1993) The Essence of Chaos, UCL Press, London, 227 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moore RJ (1985) The probability-distributed principle and runoff prediction at point and basin scales, Hydrol Sci J 30(2):273–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moore RJ (1989) Weather radar measurement of precipitation for hydrological application. In: Weather radar and the water industry: Opportunities for the 199os. British Hydrological Society Occasional Paper 2:24–34, Institute of HydrologyGoogle Scholar
  30. Moore RJ (1993) Real-time flood forecasting systems: Perspectives and prospects. British-Hungarian Workshop on Flood Defence, Budapest, 6–10 September 1993, 51 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Moore RJ (1994) Integrated systems for the hydrometeorological forecasting of floods. In: Verri G (ed) Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference EUROPROTECH. Part I: Science and Technology for the Reduction of Natural Risks,, 6–8 May 1993, CSIM, Udine Italy, pp 121–137Google Scholar
  32. Moore RJ, Bell V (1992) A grid-square rainfall-runoff model for use with weather radar data. Proc. Int. Workshop,11–13 November 1991, Lisbon, Portugal, Commission for the European Communities, 9 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Moore RJ, Hotchkiss DS, Jones DA, Black KB (1991) London weather radar local rainfall forecasting study: Final report. Contract Report to NRA Thames Region, Institute of Hydrology, 124 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Moore RJ, Austin R, Carrington DS (1993) Evaluation of FRONTIERS and Local Radar Rainfall Forecasts for use in Flood Forecasting Models. R and D Note 225, Research Contractor: Institute of Hydrology, National Rivers Authority, 156 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. Moore RJ, Bell V, Roberts GA, Morris DG (1994) Development of distributed flood forecasting models using weather radar and digital terrain data. R and D Note 252, Research Contractor: Institute of Hydrology, National Rivers Authority, 144 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Moore RJ, Jones DA, Black KB, Austin RM, Carrington DS, Tinnion M, Akhondi A (1994) RFFS and HYRAD: Integrated systems for rainfall and river flow forecasting in real-time and their application in Yorkshire. In: Analytical techniques for the development and operations planning of water resource and supply systems. BHS National Meeting, University of Newcastle, 16 November 1994, BHS Occasional Paper N° 4, British Hydrological Society, 12 ppGoogle Scholar
  37. NRA-Met Office (1992) Evaluation of FRONTIERS accumulation forecasts in the NRA Thames and North West Regions. Final Report, UK Met. Office, 90 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryall G, Conway BJ (1993) Automated precipitation nowcasting at the UK Met Office. First European Conference on Applications of Meteorology 27 September-1 October 1993, University of Oxford UK, 4 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Seo DJ, Smith JA (1992) Radar-based short-term rainfall prediction. J Hydrol 131:341–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Smolarkiewicz PK, Clark TL (1985) Numerical simulation of the evolution of a three dimensional field of cumulus clouds. Part I: Model description, comparison with observations and sensitivity studies. J Atmos Sci 42:502–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wallace JM, Hobbs PV (1977) Atmospheric science. An introductory survey. Academic, San Diego, Calif, 467 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Moore

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations