Skip to main content

Growth of Nitride Semiconductors

  • Chapter
Nitride Semiconductors and Devices

Part of the book series: Springer Series in Materials Science ((SSMATERIALS,volume 32))

Abstract

Although the synthesis of GaN goes back more than a half century, there are several pivotal developments which, in the opinion of the author, are responsible for laying the technological framework and paving the way for the tremendous commercial and scientific interest in nitrides. They are as follows: The synthesis of AlN by Tiede et al. [4.1], the synthesis of GaN through the reaction of Ga and ammonia to produce GaN by Johnson et al. [4.2], the synthesis of InN by Juza and Hahn [4.3], the epitaxial deposition of GaN using the hydride VPE technique by Maruska and Tienjen [4.4], the employment of nucleation buffer layers by Amano et al. [4.5] and Yoshida et al. [4.6], the achievements of p-type GaN by Akasaki et al. [4.7]. A more recent development which paved the way for all the commercial activity is the preparation of high-quality InGaN by Nakamura et al. [4.8] which followed the synthesis of InGaN by Osamura et al. [4.9]. Nearly every crystal-growth technique, substrate-type and orientation, has been tried in an effort to grow high-quality group-III-V nitride thin films. In recent years, various researchers have successfully taken advantage of the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE), Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE), and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) techniques, which have yielded greatly improved film quality.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. E. Tiede, M. Thimann, K. Sensse: Chem. Berichte 61, 1568 (1928)

    Google Scholar 

  2. W.C. Johnson, J.B. Parson, M.C. Crew: J. Phys. Chem. 36, 2561 (1932)

    Google Scholar 

  3. R. Juza, H. Hahn: Z. Anorgan. Allgem. Chem. 239, 282 (1938)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. H.P. Maruska, J.J. Tietjen: Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 327 (1969)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, Y. Toyoda: Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 353 (1986)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. S. Yoshida, S. Misawa, S. Gonda: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1, 250 (1983)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. I. Akasaki, H. Amano, M. Kito, K. Hiramatsu: J. Luminescence 48/49, 666 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. S. Nakamura. T. Mukai: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1457–L1459 (1992)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. K. Osamura, K. Nakajima, Y. Murakami, P.H. Shingu, A. Ohtsuki: Solid State Commun. 11, 617 (1972)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. G.A. Slack, T.F. McNelly: J. Cryst. Growth 34, 263 (1976)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. J. Karpinski, J. Jun, S. Porowski: J. Crys. Growth 66, 1 (1984)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. S. Porowski, I. Grzegory: Phase diagram of InN, in Properties of Group III Nitrides, ed. by J.H. Edgar (INSPEC, London 1994) pp. 71–88

    Google Scholar 

  13. C.D. Thurmond, R.A. Logan: J. Electrochem. Soc. 119, 622 (1972)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. T. Sasaki, T. Matsuoka: J. Appl. Phys. 77, 192 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. R. Madar, G. Jacob, J. Hallais, F. Fruchart: J. Cryst. Growth 31, 197 (1975)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Landolt, Börnstein: Numerical Data, Fundamental Relationships in Science, Technology, Vol. 17, Semiconductors (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1984)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Binary Alloys, Phase Diagrams, ed. by T.B. Massalski, H. Okamoto. P.R. Subra-naninn, L. Kacprak (ASMInt’l. Materials Park, OH 1990) p. 176

    Google Scholar 

  18. J.D. Latwa: Metal. Progr. 82, 139 (1962)

    Google Scholar 

  19. B.E. Wayne: Ceramics 15, 48 (1964)

    Google Scholar 

  20. J. A. Van Vechten: Phys. Rev. B 7, 1479 (1973)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. G.A. Slack, T.F. McNelly: J. Cryst. Growth 42, 560 (1977)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, M. Bockowski: J. Cryst. Growth 126, 601 (1993) S. Porowski: Acta Phys. Polon. A 87, 295 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. S. Porowski, I. Grzegory, J. Jun: In High Pressure Chemical Synthesis, ed. by J. Jurczak, B. Baranowski (Elsevier, Amsterdam 1989) p.21

    Google Scholar 

  24. I. Grzegory, J. Jun, M. Bockowski, S. Krukowski, M. Wroblewski, B. Lucznik, S. Porowski: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 56, 639 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. S. Strite, H. Morkoç: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 1237 (1992)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Z. Yang, F. Guarin, I.W. Tao, W.I. Wang: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 789 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. T.P. Pearsall: III-VsRev. 9, 38 (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  28. M.E. Lin, S. Strite, A. Agarwal, A. Salvador, G.L. Zhou, N. Teraguchi, A. Rock-ett, H. Morkoç: Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 702 (1993)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. P. Vermaut, P. Ruterana, G. Nouet, A. Salvador, H. Morkoç: HREM, CBED studies of polarity of nitride layers with prismatic defects grown over SiC. III-VNitrides, ed. by F.A. Ponce, T.D. Moustakas, I. Akasaki, B.A. Monemar, MRS Proc. 449, 317 (Mater. Res. Soc., Pittsburgh, PA 1997)

    Google Scholar 

  30. W. Kim, M. Yeadon, A.E. Botchkarev, S.N. Mohammad, J.M. Gibson, H. Mor-kog: J. Vac. Sci. Techn. B 15, 921 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. K. Uchida, A. Watanabe, F. Yano, M. Koguchi, T. Tanaka, S. Minagawa: J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3487 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. T. Lei, K.F. Ludwig Jr., T. Moustakas: J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4430 (1993)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. T.L. Tansley, E.M. Goldys, M. Godlewski, B. Zhou, H.Y. Zuo: The contribution of defects to the electrical, optical properties of GaN, in GaN, Related Materials, ed. by S. Pearton (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam 1997) pp.233–295

    Google Scholar 

  34. K. Doverspike, L. B. Rowland, D.K. Gaskill, J.A. Freitas Jr.: J. Electron. Mater. 24, 269 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. H.M. Manasevit, F.M. Erdmann, W.I. Simpson: J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 1864 (1971)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. S. Nakamura, Y. Harada, M. Seno: Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2021 (1991)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. K. Hiramatsu, S. Itoh, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Kuwano, T. Shiraishi, K. Oh: J. Cryst. Growth 115, 628 (1991)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. S. Nakamura: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1705 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. S.D. Hersee, J.C. Ramer, K.J. Malloy: MRS Bulletin 22, 45 (July 1997)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. S.N. Mohammad. H. Morkoç: Progr. Quantum Electron. 20, 361 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. S. Fujieda, M. Mizuta, Y. Matsumoto: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 2067 (1987)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. H. Okumura, S. Misawa, S. Yoshida: Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1058 (1991)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. J.E. Andrews, M.A. Littlejohn: J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 1273 (1975)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. L. Reimer: Transmission Electron Microscopy, 4th edn., Springer Ser. Opt. Sci., Vol.36 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1997)

    Google Scholar 

  45. A. Kuramata, K. Horino, K. Domen, K. Shinohora, T. Tanahashi: Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2521 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T, Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L217 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. C.I. Sun, J.W. Yang, Q. Chen, M.A. Khan, T. George, P. Chang-Chien, S. Maha-jan: Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1129 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. M.A. Herman, H. Sitter: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, 2nd edn., Springer Ser. Mater. Sci., Vol.7 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1996)

    Google Scholar 

  49. M.B. Panish, H. Temkin: Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Springer Ser. Mater. Sci., Vol.26 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1993)

    Google Scholar 

  50. S.T. Strite, H. Morkoç: Energetic particle assisted MBE, in Handbook of Thin Film Process Technology, ed. by S.I. Shah, D.A. Glocker (IoP, Bristol 1995) pp. 1–25

    Google Scholar 

  51. The Technology, Physics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy, ed. by E.H.C. Parker (Plenum, New York 1985)

    Google Scholar 

  52. H. Lueth: Surfaces abd Interfaces of Solid Materials, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1995)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  53. G. Popovici, S.N. Mohammad, H. Morkoç: In Physics, Applications of Group III Nitride Semiconductor Compounds, ed. by B. Gil (Oxford Univ. Press, London 1998)

    Google Scholar 

  54. H. Morkoç, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M.E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, M. Burns: J. Appl. Phys. (Rev.) 76, 1363 (1994)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. K.W. Boer: Survey of Semiconductor Physics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1990) Vol.1

    Book  Google Scholar 

  56. S. Yoshida, S. Misawa, A. Itoh: Appl. Phys. Lett. 26. 461 (1975)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. S. Winsztal, B. Wauk, H. Majewska-Minor, T. Niemyski: Thin Solid Films 32, 251 (1976)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. W. Kim, O. Aktas, A.E. Botchkarev, A. Salvador, S.N. Mohammad, H. Morkoç: J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7657 (1994)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. R.C. Powell, N.-E. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, J.E. Greene: J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1891 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. K.R. Evans, T. Lei, R. Kaspi, C.R. Jones: Presented at Topical Workshop on III-V Nitrides, Nagoya, Japan (September 1995)

    Google Scholar 

  61. R.P. Burns, K.A. Gabriel, D.E. Pierce: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 273 (1993)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. J.R. Jenny, R. Kaspi, C.R. Jones, K.R. Evans: J. Cryst. Growth 175/176, 89 (1997)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Q. Zhu, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, B.N. Sverdlov, H. Morkoç: Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1141 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. A. Botchkarov, A. Salvador, R. Sverdlov, J. Myoung, H. Morkoç,: J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4455 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Z.Z. Bandic, R.J. Hauenstein, M.L. O’Steen, T.C. McGill: Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1510 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. M.V. Averyanova, S. Yu. Karpov, Yu. N. Makarov, I.N. Przhevalskii, M. S. Ramm, R. A. Talalaev: MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 1, No.31 (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  67. O. Aktas, Z. Fan, A. Botchkarov, S.N. Mohammad, M. Roth, T. Jenkins, L. Kehias, H. Morkoç: IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 18, 293 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. S.N. Mohammad, A. Salvador, H. Morkog: Proc. IEEE 83, 1306 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. H. Morkoç,: Beyond SiC!III-V nitride based heterostructures, devices, in SiCMaterials, Devices, ed. by Y. S. Park (Academic, San Diego 1998), Vol.52, pp.307–394

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  70. M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, A. Salvador, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, H. Morkoç: Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2453 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. R. Singh, D. Doppalaudi, T.D. Moustakas: Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2388 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. T.J. Schmidt, X.H. Yang, W. Shan, J.J. Song, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, H. Morkoç: Appl. Phys. Letts. 68, 1820 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. B. Sverdlov, G.A. Martin, H. Morkoç, D.J. Smith: Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2063 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. T. Matsuoka, N. Yoshimoto, T. Sasaki, A. Katsui: J. Electron. Mater. 21, 157 (1992)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. F. Hamdani, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, A. Salvador, H. Morkoç, M. Yeadon, J. M. Gibson, S. C. T. Tsen, D. J. Smith, D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, K. Evans, C. W. Litton, W. C. Mitchel, P. Hemenger: Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 467 (1997)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. F. Hamdani, M. Yeadon, D.J. Smith, H. Tang, W. Kim, A. Salvador, A. Botchkarev, J.M. Gibson, A.Y. Polydkov, M. Skowronski, H. Morkoç: J. Appl. Phys. 83, 983 (1998)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. F.A. Ponce, D.P. Bour, W.T. Young, M. Sounders, J.W. Steeds: Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 337 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. A. Gassmann, T. Suski, N. Newmann, C. Kiselowski, E. Jones, E.R. Weber, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. D. Rubin, H. I. Helava, I. Grezegory, M. Bockovski, J. Jun, S. Porowski: J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2195 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. M.A.L. Johnson, S. Fujita, W.H. Rowland Jr., W.C. Hughes, Y.W. He, N.A. El-Masry, J.W. Cook Jr., J.F. Schetzina, J. Ren, J.A. Edmond: J. Electron. Mater. 25, 793 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. H. Amano, M. Kito, K. Hiramatsu, I. Akasaki: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2112 (1989)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1998 (1991)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. T. Tanaka, A. Watanabe, H. Amano, Y. Kobayashi, I. Akasaki, S. Yamazaki, M. Koike: Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 593 (1994)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, M. Koike, K. Manabe, T. Tanaka, H. Amano, I. Akasaki: Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1112 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. H. Morkoç, B. Sverdlov, G. B. Gao: Proc. IEEE 81, 492 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. A. Bykhovski, B. Gelmont, M. Shur: J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6332 (1997)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. A. D. Bykhovski, B.L. Gelmont, M.S. Shur: J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3691 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. J.P. Hirth, J. Lothe: Theory of Dislocations (Wiley, New York 1982) pp.231–278

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 1999 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Morkoç, H. (1999). Growth of Nitride Semiconductors. In: Nitride Semiconductors and Devices. Springer Series in Materials Science, vol 32. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-58562-3_4

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-58562-3_4

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-63647-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-58562-3

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics