The Relation Between Lie Groups and Lie Algebras
The basic method of the theory of Lie groups, which makes it possible to obtain deep results with striking simplicity, consists in reducing questions concerning Lie groups to certain problems of linear algebra. This is done by assigning to every Lie group G its “tangent algebra”g, which to a large extent determines the group G, and to every homomorphism f: G → H of Lie groups a homomorphism df: g → h) of their tangent algebras, which to a large extent determines the homomorphism f. In the language of category theory we have a functor from the category of Lie groups into the category of Lie algebras, whose properties are very close to those of an equivalence of categories. In honour of the founder of the theory of Lie groups we will call this functor (following M. M. Postnikov (1982)) the Lie functor.
KeywordsCommutator Subgroup Invariant Vector Field Tangent Algebra
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