Without warning, the relatively calm solar atmosphere can be torn asunder by sudden outbursts of a scale unknown on Earth. Catas-trophic events of incredible energy can produce transient brightenings, called solar flares, that flood the solar system with intense radiation from X-rays to radio waves. The powerful flares are easily observed at these invisible wavelengths, where they briefly dominate the Sun’s output and sometimes outshine all other astronomical sources (Fig. 7.1).
KeywordsCage Helium Rubber Explosive Flare
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