Ethical perspectives in psychiatric care and research

  • A. Okasha
Conference paper


Ethical implications become more difficult to discern, as medical interventions become more complex and as social changes impact more directly on the interaction between the physician and the patient, including the specific therapist-patient relationship in psychiatry. Social changes, political conflicts, and technological advancements create new ethical dilemmas, which demand an ethical answer from the physician. Psychiatry, as a medical specialty cannot escape responding. Ethical guidelines could help the psychiatrist by providing a general outline of what is permissible, or forbidden.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Blackhall L, Murphy S, Frank G, Michel V, Azan S (1995) Ethnicity and attitudes towards patient autonomy. JAMA 274:10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Helmchen H, Okasha A (2000) From the Hawaii Declaration to the Declaration of Madrid. Acta Psychiatr Scand 101: 20–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leff J (1988) Psychiatry around the Globe. A Transcultural View. Gaskell Press, Royal College of Psychiatrists, pp 79 ffGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moscarelli M (1995) Economics of anxiety and depression. Introduction. British Journal of Psychiatry 166(Suppl 27): 7–9Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Okasha A (2000) The impact of Arab culture on psychiatric ethics. In: Okasha A, Arboleda-Florez J, Sartorius N (eds) Ethics Culture and Psychiatry, International Perspectives. American Psychiatric Press, Inc Washington DC, London, England, pp 15–28Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    World Health Organization (2000) World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington World Health Report. WHO LibraryGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    World Psychiatric Association (1996) WPA Informational Folder 1999-2002. Madrid Declaration on Ethical Standards for Psychiatric Practice. General Assembly, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    World Psychiatric Association (WPA) (1977) Declaration of Hawaii. World Congress HawaiiGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Okasha

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations