While the assessment of stroke patients and severity grading as well as grading of clinical outcome is not a primary topic of this book, we use the following scales quite frequently and therefore want to supply the reader not familiar with these tools an overview of stroke and outcome scales; for the single scales we refer to Tables 3.1–3.6. The assessment and interpretation of clinical signs with scales and scores is an important part of the diagnostic workup of patients. Scales in general aim to attribute a number (score) to grade or describe a specific clinical syndrome. In most instances, this is an ordinal scale with a rank system. The intervals between different scores are not identical, which implies that non-parametric statistical tests have to be used, which is frequently disregarded in publications, even in highly ranked journals. Also for these scales, median instead of mean values must be used; for instance, a stroke patient with a NIHSS score of 4 is not twice as sick as a patient with a NIHSS score of 2 [73, 354].
KeywordsTraumatic Brain Injury Stroke Patient Glasgow Coma Scale Stroke Severity Scandinavian Stroke Scale
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