Surgery pp 553-584 | Cite as

Biliary System

  • Hobart W. Harris

Abstract

The history of biliary tract disease extends over 3500 years, but the birth of modern-day surgical intervention occurred little more than a century ago. Early Egyptians were aware of the liver and biliary system, and assigned these organs significance for divining future events. The oldest recorded case of gallstones was in the mummified remains of the Princess of Amenen from Thebes, circa 1500 b.c. At the time of her death, her well-preserved gallbladder contained at least 30 gallstones. For more than a millennium after her demise, little changed regarding the largely mystical interpretation of the liver and biliary system. But, beginning with Hippocrates (400 b.c.) and extending through the time of Galen (a.d. 200), there gradually developed an appreciation for organ dysfunction and how this might result in disease. In 1506, the detailed description of right upper quadrant abdominal pain associated with the presence of gallstones made by Antonio Benivieni (1440–1502) was published, representing the first correlation of biliary colic with autopsy findings. During the ensuing 250 years, a growing appreciation for human anatomy, combined with the hypothesis that biliary calculi could result from stasis within the gallbladder, culminated in the first reported cholecystectomy. In 1867, through a surgical misadventure, John Stough Bobbs of Indiana opened what he initially mistook for an ovarian cyst in a woman complaining of abdominal pain. No doubt to his surprise, the incision yielded several gallstones, as the cystic structure was instead the gallbladder. After removing the stones, Bobbs closed the cholecystotomy incision and the patient recovered.

Keywords

Obesity Lipase Morphine Bismuth Triad 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lindner HH. Embryology and anatomy of the biliary tree. In: Way LW, Pellegrini CA, eds. Surgery of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts, 1st Ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1987: 3–15.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thorek P. Gallbladder and Bile Ducts, 2nd Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1962.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lindner HH, Green RB. Embryology and surgical anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract. Surg Clin North Am 1964; 44.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moore KL. Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 2nd Ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nora PF. Gallbldder and Biliary Tract, 2nd Ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1980.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rathgaber S, Rex D. Right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Diagnosis in patients without evident gallstones. Postgrad Med 1993; 94: 159–161.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Adamek HE, Albert J, Weitz M, Breer H, Schilling D, Riemann JF. A prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in patients with suspected bile duct obstruction [see comments]. Gut 1998; 43: 680–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davis LP, McCarroll K. Correlative imaging of the liver and hepatobiliary system. Semin Nucl Med 1994; 24: 208–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Admirand WH, Small DM. The physicochemical basis of cholesterol gallstone formation in man. J Clin Invest 1968; 47: 1043–1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Portincasa P, van de Mceberg P, van Erpecum KJ, Palasciano G, VanBerge-Henegouwen GP. An update on the pathogenesis and treatment of cholesterol gallstones. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1997; 223: 60–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Strasberg SM. The pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones, a review. J Gastrointest Surg 1998; 2: 109–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Konikoff FM, Laufer H, Messer G, Gilat T. Monitoring cholesterol crystallization from lithogenic model bile by time-lapse density gradient ultracentrifugation. J Hepatol 1997; 26: 703–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Portincasa P, Di Ciaula A, Baldassarre G, et al. Gallbladder motor function in gallstone patients: sonographic and in vitro studies on the role of gallstones, smooth muscle function and gallbladder wall inflammation. J Hepatol 1994; 21: 430–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pauletzki J, Althaus R, Holl J, Sackmann M, Paumgartner G. Gallbladder emptying and gallstone formation: a prospective study on gallstone recurrence [see comments]. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 765–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Diehl AK. Epidemiology and natural history of gallstone disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1991; 20: 1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Williams CN, Johnston JL. Prevalence of gallstones and risk factors in Caucasian women in a rural Canadian community. Can Med Assoc J 1980; 122: 664–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mellstrom D, Asztely M, Svanvik J. Gallstones and previous cholecystectomy in 77- to 78-year-old women in an urban population in Sweden. Scand J Gastroenterol 1988; 23: 1241–1244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jorgensen T. Gall stones in a Danish population. Relation to weight, physical activity, smoking, coffee consumption, and diabetes mellitus. Gut 1989; 30: 528–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Holzbach RT. Newer pathogenetic concepts in cholesterol gallstone formation: a unitary hypothesis. Digestion 1997; 58: 29–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mok HY, Druffel ER, Rampone WM. Chronology of cholelithiasis. Dating gallstones from atmospheric radiocarbon produced by nuclear bomb explosions. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 1075–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ko CW, Sekijima JH, Lee SP. Biliary sludge. Ann Intern Med 1999; 130: 301–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Messing B, Bories C, Kunstlinger F, Bernier JJ. Does total par-enteral nutrition induce gallbladder sludge formation and lithiasis? Gastroenterology 1983; 84: 1012–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Janowitz P, Kratzer W, Zemmler T, Tudyka J, Wechsler J. Gallbladder sludge: spontaneous course and incidence of complications in patients without stones. Hepatology 1994; 20: 291–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lund J. Surgical indications in cholithiasis: prophylactic cholecystectomy elucidated on the basis of long-term follow up on 526 nonoperated cases. Ann Surg 1960; 151: 153–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gracie WA, Ransohoff DF. The natural history of silent gallstones: the innocent gallstone is not a myth. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 798–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McSherry CK, Ferstenberg H, Calhoun WF, Lahman E, Virshup M. The natural history of diagnosed gallstone disease in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Ann Surg 1985; 202: 59–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Friedman GD. Natural history of asymptomatic and symptomatic gallstones. Am J Surg 1993; 165: 399–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ransohoff DF, Gracie WA, Wolfenson LB, Neuhauser D. Prophylactic cholecystectomy or expectant management for silent gallstones. A decision analysis to assess survival. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99: 199–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Del Favero G, Caroli A, Meggiato T, et al. Natural history of gallstones in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A prospective 5-year follow-up. Dig Dis Sci 194; 39: 1704–1707.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Linden Wvd, Sunzel H. Early versus delayed operation for acute cholecystitis. A controlled clinical trial. Am J Surg 1970; 120: 7–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    McArthur P, Cuschieri A, Sells RA, Shields R. Controlled clinical trial comparing early with interval cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Br J Surg 1975; 62: 850–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lahtinen J, Alhava EM, Aukee S. Acute cholecystitis treated by early and delayed surgery. A controlled clinical trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 1978; 13: 673–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jarvinen HJ, Hastbacka J. Early cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: a prospective randomized study. Ann Surg 1980; 191: 501–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Norrby S, Herlin P, Holmin T, Sjodahl R, Tagesson C. Early or delayed cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis? A clinical trial. Br J Surg 1983; 70: 163–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sianesi M, Ghirarduzzi A, Percudani M, Dell’Anna B. Cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: timing of operation, bacteriologic aspects, and postoperative course. Am J Surg 1984; 148: 609–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lo CM, Liu CL, Fan ST, Lai EC, Wong J. Prospective randomized study of early versus delayed laparoscopie cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis [see comments]. Ann Surg 1998; 227: 461–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lai PB, Kwong KH, Leung KL, et al. Randomized trial of early versus delayed laparoscopie cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Br J Surg 1998; 85: 764–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Abboud PA, Malet PF, Berlin JA, et al. Predictors of common bile duct stones prior to cholecystectomy: a meta-analysis. Gastrointest Endosc 196; 44: 450–455.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Onken JE, Brazer SR, Eisen GM, et al. Predicting the presence of choledocholithiasis in patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 91: 762–767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Leese T, Neoptolemos JP, Baker AR, Can-Locke DL. Management of acute cholangitis and the impact of endoscopie sphincterotomy. Br J Surg 1986; 73: 988–992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lai EC, Mok FP, Tan ES, et al. Endoscopie biliary drainage for severe acute cholangitis [see comments]. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 1582–1586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chijiiwa K, Kozaki N, Naito T, Kameoka N, Tanaka M. Treatment of choice for choledocholithiasis in patients with acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis and liver cirrhosis. Am J Surg 1995; 170: 356–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sugiyama M, Atomi Y. Treatment of acute cholangitis due to choledocholithiasis in elderly and younger patients. Arch Surg 1997; 132: 1129–1133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Acosta JM, Ledesma CL. Gallstone migration as a cause of acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1974; 290: 484–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kelly TR. Gallstone pancreatitis: pathophysiology. Surgery (St. Louis) 1976; 80: 488–492.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Barie P, Fischer E. Acute acalculous cholecystitis. J Am Coll Surg 1995; 180: 232–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kalliafas S, Ziegler DW, Flancbaum L, Choban PS. Acute acalculous cholecystitis: incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, and outcome. Am Surg 1998; 64: 471–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harris H, Kumwenda Z, Sheen-Chen S, Shah A, Schecter W. Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. Am J Surg 1998; 176: 34–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Csendes A, Diaz JC, Burdiles P, Maluenda F, Nava O. Mirizzi syndrome and cholecystobiliary fistula: a unifying classification. BrJ Surg 1989; 76: 1139–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pemberton M, Wells AD. The Mirizzi syndrome. Postgrad Med J 1997; 73: 487–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Glasgow RE, Visser BC, Harris HW, Patti MG, Kilpatrick SJ, Mulvihill SJ. Changing management of gallstone disease during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 1998; 12: 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gouldman JW, Sticca RP, Rippon MB, McAlhany JC Jr. Laparoscopie cholecystectomy in pregnancy. Am Surg 1998;64:93–97; discussion 97–98.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Barone JE, Bears S, Chen S, Tsai J, Russell JC. Outcome study of cholecystectomy during pregnancy. Am J Surg 1999; 177: 232–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rewbridge A. The disappearance of gallstone shadows following the prolonged administration of bile salts. Surgery (St. Louis) 1937; 1: 395–400.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Danzinger RG, Hofmann AF, Schoenfield LJ, Thistle JL. Disso lution of cholesterol gallstones by chenodeoxycholic acid. N Engl J Med 1972; 286: 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bell GD, Whitney B, Dowling RH. Gallstone dissolution in man using chenodeoxycholic acid. Lancet 1972; 2: 1213–1216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Palmer KR, Hofmann AF. Intraductal mono-octanoin for the direct dissolution of bile duct stones: experience in 343 patients. Gut 1986; 27: 196–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brandon JC, Teplick SK, Haskin PH, et al. Common bile duct calculi: updated experience with dissolution with methyl tertiary butyl ether. Radiology 1988; 166: 665–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hellstem A, Leuschner U, Benjaminov A, et al. Dissolution of gallbladder stones with methyl tert-butyl ether and stone recurrence: a European survey [published erratum appears in Dig Dis Sci 1998;43(11):2572]. Dig Dis Sci 1998; 43: 911–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sackmann M, Delius M, Sauerbruch T, et al. Shock-wave lithotripsy of gallbladder stones. The first 175 patients. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 393–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Katz S. Biliary lithotripsy: more questions than answers. The ACG Committee on FDA-Related Matters. Am J Gastroenterol 1990; 85: 497–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pelletier G, Raymond JM, Capdeville R, Mosnier H, Caroli-Bosc FX. Gallstone recurrence after successful lithotripsy. J Hepatol 1995; 23: 420–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gilliland TM, Traverso LW. Modern standards for comparison of cholecystectomy with alternative treatments for symptomatic cholelithiasis with emphasis on long-term relief of symptoms. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1990; 170: 39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Glenn F, McSherry CK, Dineen P. Morbidity of surgical treatment for nonmalignant biliary tract disease. Surg Gynecol Ob-stet 1968; 126: 15–26.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Magee RB, MacDuffee RC. One thousand consecutive cholecystectomies. Arch Surg 1968; 96: 858–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Haff RC, Butcher HR Jr, Ballinger WFD. Biliary tract operations. A review of 1,000 patients. Arch Surg 1969; 98: 428–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Arnold DJ. 28,621 cholecystectomies in Ohio. Results of a survey in Ohio hospitals by the Gallbladder Survey Committee, Ohio Chapter, American College of Surgeons. Am J Surg 1970; 119: 714–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    McSherry CK, Glenn F. The incidence and causes of death following surgery for nonmalignant biliary tract disease. Ann Surg 1980; 191: 271–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Morgenstern L, Wong L, Berci G. Twelve hundred open cholecystectomies before the laparoscopie era. A standard for comparison. Arch Surg 1992; 127: 400–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Roslyn JJ, Binns GS, Hughes EF, Saunders-Kirkwood K, Zinner MJ, Cates JA. Open cholecystectomy. A contemporary analysis of 42,474 patients. Ann Surg 193; 218: 129–137.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Huer G. The factors leading to death in operations upon the gallbladder and bile ducts. Ann Surg 1934; 99: 881–885.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bredesen J, Jorgensen T, Andersen TF, et al. Early postoperative mortality following cholecystectomy in the entire female population of Denmark, 1977–1981. World J Surg 1992; 16: 530–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Strasberg SM, Hertl M, Soper NJ. An analysis of the problem of biliary injury during laparoscopie cholecystectomy [see comments]. J Am Coll Surg 1995; 180: 101–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gui GP, Cheruvu CV, West N, Sivaniah K, Fiennes AG. Is cholecystectomy effective treatment for symptomatic gallstones? Clinical outcome after long-term follow-up [see comments]. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1998; 80: 25–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lasson A. The postcholecystectomy syndrome: diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Stand J Gastroenterol 1987; 22: 897–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Moody FG. Postcholecystectomy syndromes. Surg Annu 1987; 19: 205–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Womack NA, Crider RL. The persistence of symptoms following cholecystectomy. Ann Surg 1947; 126: 31–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Blumgart L, McCloy R. Postcholecystectomy syndrome. In: Way L, Pellegrini C, eds. Surgery of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1987: 407–416.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    de Pouvourville G, Ribet-Reinhart N, Fendrick M, Houry S, Testas P, Hugier M. A prospective comparison of costs and morbidity of laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy. Hepatogastroenterology 1997; 44: 35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shea JA, Berlin JA, Bachwich DR, et al. Indications for and outcomes of cholecystectomy: a comparison of the pre-and post-laparoscopie eras. Ann Surg 1998; 227: 343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rice DC, Memon MA, Jamison RL, et al. Long-term consequences of intraoperative spillage of bile and gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. J Gastrointest Surg 1997; 1: 8591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schafer M, Suter C, Klaiber C, Wehrli H, Frei E, Krahenbuhl L. Spilled gallstones after laparoscopie cholecystectomy. A relevant problem? A retrospective analysis of 10,174 laparoscopic cholecystectomies [see comments]. Surg Endosc 1998; 12: 305–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Southern Surgeons Club. A prospective analysis of 1518 laparoscopic cholecystectomies [published erratum appears in N Engl J Med 1991;325(21):1517–1518] [see comments]. N Engl J Med 191;324:1073–1078.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cuschieri A, Dubois F, Mouiel J, et al. The European experience with laparoscopie cholecystectomy. Am J Sug 1991; 161: 385–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ferzli G, Kloss DA. Laparoscopie cholecystectomy: 111 consecutive cases. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86: 1176–1178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Larson GM, Vitale GC, Casey J, et al. Multipractice analysis of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1,983 patients. Am J Surg 1992; 163: 221–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Litwin DE, Girotti MJ, Poulin EC, Mamazza J, Nagy AG. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: trans-Canada experience with 2201 cases. Can J Surg 1992; 35: 291–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hugh TB, Chen FC, Hugh TJ, Li B. Laparoscopie cholecystectomy. A prospective study of outcome in 100 unselected patients [see comments]. Med J Aust 1992; 156: 318–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Go PM, Schol F, Gouma DJ. Laparoscopie cholecystectomy in The Netherlands. Br J Surg 1993; 80: 1180–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Orlando RD, Russell JC, Lynch J, Mattie A. Laparoscopie cholecystectomy. A statewide experience. The Connecticut Laparoscopie Cholecystectomy Registry. Arch Surg 1993;128:494–498; discussion 498–499.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rubio PA. Laparoscopie cholecystectomy: experience in 500 consecutive cases. Int Surg 1993; 78: 277–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dunn D, Nair R, Fowler S, McCloy R. Laparoscopie cholecystectomy in England and Wales: results of an audit by the Royal College of Surgeons of England [see comments]. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1994; 76: 269–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Savassi-Rocha PR, Ferreira JT, Diniz MT, Sanches SR. Laparoscopie cholecystectomy in Brazil: analysis of 33,563 cases. Int Surg 1997; 82: 208–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ihasz M, Hung CM, Regoly-Merei J, et al. Complicationsof laparoscopie cholecystectomy in Hungary: a multicentre study of 13,833 patients. Eur J Surg 1997; 163: 267–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hamour OA, Kashgari RH, al-Harbi MA. Minimal invasive surgery: a district hospital experience. East Mr Med J 1998; 75: 274–278.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Z’Graggen K, Wehrli H, Metzger A, Buehler M, Frei E, Klaiber C. Complications of laparoscopie cholecystectomy in Switzerland. A prospective 3-year study of 10,174 patients. Swiss Association of Laparoscopie and Thoracoscopic Surgery. Surg En-dose 1998; 12: 1303–1310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Attwood SE, Hill AD, Mealy K, Stephens RB. A prospective comparison of laparoscopie versus open cholecystectomy [see comments]. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1992; 74: 397–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Farrow HC, Fletcher DR, Jones RM. The morbidity of surgical access: a study of open versus laparoscopie cholecystectomy. Aust N Z J Surg 1993; 63: 952–954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sanabria JR, Clavien PA, Cywes R, Strasberg SM. Laparoscopie versus open cholecystectomy: a matched study [see comments]. Can J Surg 193; 36: 330–336.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Barkun JS, Barkun AN, Meakins JL. Laparoscopie versus open cholecystectomy: the Canadian experience. The McGill Gallstone Treatment Group. Am J Surg 1993; 165: 455–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Williams LF Jr, Chapman WC, Bonau RA, McGee EC Jr, Boyd RW, Jacobs JK. Comparison of laparoscopie cholecystectomy with open cholecystectomy in a single center. Am J Surg 193; 165: 459–465.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Berggren U, Gordh T, Grama D, Haglund U, Rastad J, Arvidsson D. Laparoscopie versus open cholecystectomy: hospitalization, sick leave, analgesia and trauma responses [see comments]. Br J Surg 1994; 81: 1362–1365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stevens HP, van de Berg M, Ruseler CH, Wereldsma JC. Clinical and financial aspects of cholecystectomy: laparoscopie versus open technique. World J Surg 1997;21:91–96, discussion 96–97.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Savader SJ, Lillemoe KD, Prescott CA, et al. Laparoscopie cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: a health and financial disaster. Ann Surg 1997; 225: 268–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bauer TW, Morris JB, Lowenstein A, Wolferth C, Rosato FE, Rosato EF. The consequences of a major bile duct injury during laparoscopie cholecystectomy. J Gastrointest Surg 1998; 2: 61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stewart L, Way LW. Bile duct injuries during laparoscopie cholecystectomy. Factors that influence the results of treatment. Arch Surg 1995;130:1123–1128; discussion 1129.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Diehl AK. Gallstone size and the risk of gallbladder cancer. DAMA 1983; 250: 2323–2326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nevin JE, Moran TJ, Kay S, King R. Carcinoma of the gallbladder: staging, treatment, and prognosis. Cancer (Phila) 1976; 37: 141–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Donohue JH, Stewart AK, Menck HR. The National Cancer Data Base report on carcinoma of the gallbladder, 1989–1995. Cancer (Phila.) 1998; 83: 2618–2628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gall FP, Kockerling F, Scheele J, Schneider C, Hohenberger W. Radical operations for carcinoma of the gallbladder: present status in Germany. World J Surg 1991; 15: 328–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Shirai Y, Yoshida K, Tsukada K, Muto T, Watanabe H. Radical Surgery for gallbladder carcinoma. Long-term results. Ann Surg 1992; 216: 565–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Onoyama H, Yamamoto M, Tseng A, Ajiki T, Saitoh Y. Extended cholecystectomy for carcinoma of the gallbladder. World J Surg 1995; 19: 758–763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bartlett DL, Fong Y, Fortner JG, Brennan MF, Blumgart LH. Long-term results after resection for gallbladder cancer. Implications for staging and management. Ann Surg 1996; 224: 639–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yamaguchi K, Chijiiwa K, Saiki S, et al. Retrospective analysis of 70 operations for gallbladder carcinoma. Br J Surg 197; 84: 200–204.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    de Aretxabala XA, Roa IS, Burgos LA, Araya JC, Villaseca MA, Silva JA. Curative resection in potentially resectable tumours of the gallbladder. Eur J Surg 1997; 163: 419–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Henson DE, Albores-Saavedra J, Corle D. Carcinoma of the gallbladder. Histologic types, stage of disease, grade, and survival rates. Cancer (Phila.) 1992; 70: 1493–1497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Henson DE, Albores-Saavedra J, Corle D. Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Histologic types, stage of disease, grade, and survival rates. Cancer (Phila) 1992; 70: 1498–1501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Langer JC, Langer B, Taylor BR, Zeldin R, Cummings B. Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts: results of an aggressive surgical approach. Surgery (St. Louis) 1985; 98: 752–759.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nakeeb A, Pitt HA, Sohn TA, et al. Cholangiocarcinoma. A spectrum of intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal tumors. Ann Surg 1996;224:463–473; discussion 473–475.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Klatskin G. Adenocarcinoma of the hepatic duct at its bifurcation within the porta hepatis. An unusual tumor with distinctive clinical and pathological features. Am J Med 1965; 38: 241–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Burke EC, Jarnagin WR, Hochwald SN, Pisters PW, Fong Y, Blumgart LH. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: patterns of spread, the importance of hepatic resection for curative operation, and a presurgical clinical staging system. Ann Surg 1998; 228: 385–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Miyazaki M, Ito H, Nakagawa K, et al. Aggressive surgical approaches to hilar cholangiocarcinoma: hepatic or local resection? Surgery (St. Louis) 1998; 123: 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Iwatsuki S, Todo S, Marsh JW, et al. Treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumors) with hepatic resection or transplantation. J Am Coll Surg 1998; 187: 358–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Bismuth H, Nakache R, Diamond T. Management strategies in resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg 1992; 215: 31–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Su CH, Tsay SH, Wu CC, et al. Factors influencing postoperative morbidity, mortality, and survival after resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Ann surg 1996; 223: 384–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Strasberg SM. Resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. HPB Surg 1998; 10: 415–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Casavilla FA, Marsh JW, Iwatsuki S, et al. Hepatic resection and transplantation for peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. J Am Coll Surg 1997;485: 429–436.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Madariaga JR, Iwatsuki S, Todo S, Lee RG, Irish W, Starzl TE. Liver resection for hilar and peripheral cholangiocarcinomas: a study of 62 cases. Ann Surg 1998; 227: 70–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Nagino M, Nimura Y, Kamiya J, et al. Segmental liver resections for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 1998; 45: 7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jamagin WR, Burke E, Powers C, Fong Y, Blumgart LH. Intra-hepatic biliary enteric bypass provides effective palliation in selected patients with malignant obstruction at the hepatic duct confluence. Am J Surg 1998; 175: 453–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    England RE, Martin DF. Endoscopic and percutaneous intervention in malignant obstructive jaundice. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 1996; 19: 381–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Fieber SS, Nance FC., Choledochal cyst and neoplasm: a cornprehensive review of 106 cases and presentation of two original cases. Am Surg 1997; 63: 982–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Miyano T, Yamataka A. Choledochal cysts. Curr Opin Pediatr 1997; 9: 283–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Todani T, Watanabe Y, Narusue M, Tabuchi K, Okajima K. Congenital bile duct cysts: classification, operative procedures, and review of thirty-seven cases including cancer arising from choledochal cyst. Am J Surg 1977; 134: 263–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Furukawa H, Kosuge T, Shimada K, et al. Small polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: differential diagnosis and surgical indications by helical computed tomography. Arch Surg 1998; 133: 735–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Collett JA, Allan RB, Chisholm RJ, Wilson IR, Burt MJ, Chapman BA. Gallbladder polyps: prospective study. J Ultrasound Med 1998; 17: 207–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Thistle JL, Cleary PA, Lachin JM, Tyor MP, Hersh T. The natural history of cholelithiasis: the National Cooperative Gallstone Study. Ann Intern Med 1984; 101: 171–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Lamont JT, Carey MC. Cholesterol gallstone formation. 2. Pathobiology and pathomechanics. Prog Liver Dis 1992; 10: 165–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Alexander-Williams J. Bacteriology of biliary disease. In: Way L, Pellegrini C, eds. Surgery of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts, 1st Ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1987: 93–102.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Harris H, Pellegrini C. Indications, operative technique, and complications of cholecystectomy (open)-cholecystostomy open. In: Braasch J, Tompkins R, eds. Surgical Disease of the Biliary Tract and Pancreas—Multidisciplinary Management. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1994: 129–143.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Beahrs O, Henson D, Hutter R, Kennedy B. American Joint Committee on Cancer: Manual for Staging Cancer, 4th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hobart W. Harris

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations