Behavior and Risk Typology: Disaggregation of Accident Statistics and Behavior

  • Heikki Summala
Conference paper


In road safety research and practice, it is customary to consider accidents in relation to exposure, for example, when accident rates are computed on the basis of number of accidents per head of population, number of registered vehicles or vehicle kilometers. Such measures are typically referred to as accident risk. These measures mean different things and are useful for different purposes. For example, road fatalities per head of population describes the total cost of road traffic to society whereas fatalities per vehicle kilometers describes the safety of a road traffic system for example in comparison to other transport modes. The former typically increases with motorization while the latter improves with motorization (eg. 20). The former emphasizes avoiding death in traffic as such while the latter rather considers deaths as one output in the optimization of the road traffic system. As in the other big public health problems, we should start from looking at deaths per population, or absolute number of people killed in traffic in a country. What matters is how many people are killed or seriously injured in traffic.


Visual Search Black Spot Traffic Safety Accident Statistic Accident Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Evans L. Young driver involvement in severe car crashes. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 3: 63–78. 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gregersen N.P, Berg HY. Lifestyle and accidents among young drivers. Accident Analysis&Prevention, 26, 297–303. 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hatakka M. Novice drivers’ risk and self-evaluations (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis No. B 228). University of Turku. 1998Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harms L. Variation in drivers’ cognitive load: Effects of driving through village areas and rural junctions. Ergonomics, 34, 151–160. 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Krantz LG. Varför minskar körkorts-och bilinnehavet bland de yngre i Sverige? Sociala och regionala skillnader. VTIs och KFBs Forskardagar (Jan. 14). 1998.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Laapotti S, Keskinen E. Differences in fatal loss-of-control accidents between young male and female drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 30, 435–442. 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Näätänen R, Summala H. Road-User Behavior and Traffic Accidents. North-Holland/American Elsevier, Amsterdam and New York. 1976.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pasanen E. Oikealle kääntyvän autoilijan ja oikealta tulevan pyöräilijän ongelma (Report L4). City of Helsinki, Traffic Planning Department. 1992.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Preusser DF, Williams AF, Zador PL, Blomberg RD. The effect of curfew laws on motor vehicle crashes. Law and Policy Quarterly, 6, 115–128. 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rajalin S. The connection between risky driving and involvement in fatal accidents. Accident Analysis&Prevention, 26, 555–562. 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Räsänen M, Summala H. Attention and expectation problems in bicyclecar collisions: an in-depth study of bicycle accidents. Accident Analysis&Prevention, 30, 657–666. 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Räsänen M, Summala H, Pasanen E. The safety effect of sight obstacles and road markings at bicycle crossings. Traffic Engineering & Control, 39, 98–102. 1998.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Salmi H, Summala H. Nuorten aiheuttamat kuolemaan johtavat kovavauhtiset tieliikenneonnettomuudet vuosina 1992–1996 (Reports No. 3/98). Ministry of Transport and Communications, Helsinki. 1998.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Summala H. Young driver accidents: Risk taking or failure of skills? Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 3, 79–91. 1987.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Summala H. Taidot ja motiivit nuorten kuljettajien onnettomuuksissa. XX National Congress of Traffic Safety, Korpilampi, May 3rd, 1995. Also in Tie ja Liikenne, 1996, 67(1–2), p. 21–23. 1995.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Summala H. Elämän hallinta liikenteessä: kohti liikennekuolemien nollatavoitetta (Report 29). University of Helsinki, Traffic Research Unit. 1996a.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Summala H. Accident risk and driver behaviour. Safety Science, 22(1–3), 103–117. 1996b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Summala H, Nieminen T, Punto M. Maintaining lane position with peripheral vision during in-vehicle tasks. Human Factors, 38, 442–451. 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Summala H, Pasanen E, Räsänen M, Sievänen J. Bicycle accidents and drivers’ visual search at left and right turns. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 28, 147–153. 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Trinca GW, Johnston IR, Campbell BJ, Haight FA, Knight PR, Mackay GM, McLean AJ, Petrucelli E. Reducing traffic injury-A global challenge. Melbourne: Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. 1988.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Williams AF. Nighttime driving and fatal crash involvement of teenagers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 17, 1–5. 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heikki Summala
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations