Advertisement

Behavior, Technology and Traffic Safety

  • David Shinar
  • Ben Gurion
Conference paper

Abstract

The importance of highway traffic safety has increased significantly in the 90 ’s. This has been reflected in changes in driver behavior, governmental action, and utilization of new research and advance technology in the vehicles and road system. The interaction between these areas is complex, but it appears that the changes are initiated not by the technology but rather by the road users norms and beliefs concerning the importance of safety over other values. This paper deals with the impact of five specific issues that are important to the interaction between behavior and technology and its effects on safety.
  1. 1

    Technology changes faster than people’s adaptation to it, and there is a need to consider the behavioral impacts and prepare for them, before the safety benefits can be realized.

     
  2. 2

    Increased congestion on the streets and highways changes driver behavior in two ways. First, driving becomes more aggressive as people become frustrated by lost time. Second, people incorporate more and more non-driving — mostly work — tasks into the time behind the wheel, thereby raising further concerns about safety.

     
  3. 3

    Behavioral safety guidelines are lagging behind emerging technologies of safety and convenience. This implies the need for a new approach to safety assurance, one that would include human factors considerations throughout the design process.

     
  4. 4

    The driving population is aging and the older drivers need special accommodation. License revocation based on medical impairments has not proven successful for either safety or mobility, and more positive approaches are offered.

     
  5. 5

    The vehicle-roadway-user system has become part of the global village, and this is a strong impetus for global standardization that should include vehicle displays and controls, roadway guidance systems, and minimum driver licensing requirements.

     

Keywords

International Standard Organization Traffic Safety Intelligent Transportation System Steering Wheel Safety Belt 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    ARROWS. Advanced Research on Road Work Zone Safety Standards in Europe. Deliverable 1: Road Work Zone Typology, Safety Countermeasures, Standards, and Practices. Project coordinator: National Technical University of Athens, Department of Transportation Planning and Engineering. May 1997.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ball K, Owsley C, Stalvey B, Roenker D.L, Sloane ME, Graves M. Driving avoidance and functional impairment in older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30, 313–322. 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown W. To have and to hold. The Washington Post, October 12, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Butler C. Adult roles in supervised practice, role models, and controlling use of the car. Presentation at TRB Midyear meeting of Committee A3B03 (Operator Education and Regulation). Washington, D.C. Sept. 14, 1998.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Collard DA, Mortimer NL. A survey of Canadian drivers’ knowledge about and experience with anti-lock brakes. Proceedings of the 16th International Technical Conference on the enhanced Safety of Vehicles. Windsor, Canada, 1–4 Jun, 1998.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    DOT. Transportation secretary announces proposal to preserve, enhance benefits of air bags and reduce risks. U.S. Department of Transportation Press Release, No. NHTSA 63–98, September 14, 1998.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eberhard, J. Safe Mobility for Senior Citizens. IATSS Research, Vol. 20, 29–37. 1997.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ellison PA, Govern JM, Petri HL, Figler MH. Anonymity and aggressive driving behavior: a field study. Journal of Social behavior and Personality, 10, 265–272. 1995.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eost C. Flyte MG. An investigation of the use of the car as a mobile office. Applied Ergonomics, 29, 383–388. 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Evans L. Antilock brake systems and risk of different types of crashes in traffic. Proceedings of the 16th International Technical Conference on the enhanced Safety of Vehicles. Windsor, Canada, 1–4 June, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fitts PM, Posner MI. Human Performance. Pacific Palisades, CA: Brooks/ Cole. 1967.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    FHWA. Our nation’s Travel: 1995 NPTS Early Results Report. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA-PL-97–028. Washington, D.C. 1997.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    FHWA. Older Driver Highway Desing Handbook. Publication No. FHWA-RD-97–135. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. January, 1998.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldberg F. The Electronic Driving License Saves Lives. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Risk-Taking Behavior and Traffic Safety, Chatham Bars, MA, October 19–22, 1997.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goo SK. Steering wheels are lap desks in scary mobile offices. Wall Street Journal, September 20–21, 1998.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goodman M, Bents FD, Tijerina L, Wierwille W, Lerner N, Benel D. An investigation of the safety implications of wireless communications in vehicles. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Report No. DOT HS 808–635. Washington D.C., November 1997.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Green PA. Symbols for controls and displays (pp. 237–268). In B. Peacock and W. Karwowski,(Eds.) Automotive Ergonomics. London: Taylor and Francis. 1993.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hakamies-Blomqvist L, Wahlstrom B. Why do older drivers give up driving? Accident Analysis and Prevention. Vol. 30, 305–312. 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    ISO. Road vehicles — Passenger cars — Location of hand controls, indicators and tell-tales. ISO Standard 4040–1977 (E). Geneva: International Standards Organization. 1977.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    ISO. Road vehicles — Symbols for controls, indicators and tell-tales (4th Edition). ISO Standard 2575–1982 (E). Geneva: International Standards Organization. 1982.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Janke MK. Age-related disabilities that may impair driving and their assessment. Report No. 156, California Department of Motor Vehicles, Sacramento, California. 1994.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jonah B. Sensation seeking and risky driving: a review and synthesis of the literature. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29, 651–665. 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maltz M, Shinar D. Eye movements of younger and older drivers. Human Factors, in press. 1998.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mangione CM, Philips RS, Seddon JM, Lawrence MG. Development of the ‘Activities of Daily Vision Scale’. A Measure of Visual Functional Status. Medical Care, 30: 1111–1126. 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Martinez R. Statement of the Honorable Ricardo Martinez, M.D., Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, before the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Surface Transportation. Washington, D.C., July 17, 1997.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    NHTSA. Guidelines for Motor Vehicle Administrators: Model Driver Screening and Evaluation Program. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington D.C. 1992.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    NHTSA. Traffic Safety Facts 1997 — Older Population. National Center for Statistics and Analysis, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. 1998a.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    NHTSA. Safety Fact Sheet 9/1/98. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington D.C. 1998b.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Noy I. Towards process-oriented requirements for ITS safety Assurance. International Association of Traffic and Safety Research, in press. 1998.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Perel M. Helping older drivers benefit from in-vehicle technologies. Proceedings of the Enhanced Safety for Vehicles (ESV) Conference. Windsor Ontario. 1998.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Robinson L. Multimedia for cars, trains, and hand-helds. Advanced Imaging, July 1998, 18–22.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rotman, M. A Study of Safety in Automobile Advertising Trends in the International Market. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Unpublished report. 1995.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schrank DL, Lomax TJ. Urban Roadway Congestion — 1982 to 1984. Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA/TX-98/1131–9. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. 1997.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shinar D. Aggressive Driving: Contribution of the Drivers and/or Contribution of the Roads. Keynote address at the International Congress of Applied Psychology, San Francisco, CA, August 13, 1998.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shinar D. Comprehension of highway traffic signs as a function of driver age, education, and driving exposure. Work in progress. 1998.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shinar D, Schechtman E. Health and Traffic Safety Behaviors in the U.S. in the Years 1985–1995. Final Report to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. 1998.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stutts JC, Stewart JR, Martell C. Cognitive test performance and crash risk in an older driver population. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30, 337–346. 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Treece JB. Honda adds safety features to Acura RL, Legend. Automotive News. September 7, 1998, p. 22.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vercruyssen M, Williams M, Hancock P, Foderberg D. Automobile braking response speed: age differences and effects of collision warnings. Proceedings of the Intelligent Transportation Society (ITS) of America Annual Meeting. 1996.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Walker N, Fain WB, Fisk AD, McGuire CI. Aging and decision making: driving-related problem solving. Human Factors, 39, 438–444. 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Whitlock F.A. Death on the road. London: Tavistock. 1971.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wilkins J. HSRC Study Shows Senior Seldom Plan for Life Without a Car. Highway Safety Directions, North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Summer 1998, p. 2.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zaidel DM, Hocherman I. License renewal for older drivers: the effects of medical and vision tests. Journal of Safety Research, 17, 111–116. 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zur A, Shinar D. Older people’s driving habits, visual abilities, and subjective assessment of daily visual functioning. Work, in press. 1998.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Shinar
    • 1
  • Ben Gurion
    • 1
  1. 1.University of the NegevIsrael

Personalised recommendations