The Conversion of Military Areas in the Baltic States

  • Jussi S. Jauhiainen
Conference paper


The ‘peace dividend’ after the Cold War has led to the closure of over 8,000 military bases globally. The United States and Russia have been responsible for 80 per cent, and many of them have been in Germany and Eastern Europe. The technological development of strategic weapons and information technology have made much conventional armament unnecessary (BICC 1996: 178) and, in addition, economic instability during the last decade has made it necessary to redesign the national defence budgets. Recently the pace of disarmament has slowed down somewhat, but the demand for conversion has not been reduced.


Baltic State Military Basis Regional Airport Military Area Base Conversion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BICC [Bonn International Center for Conversion] (1996). Conversion survey 1996: Global disarmament, demilitarization and demobilization. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. BICC [Bonn International Center for Conversion] (1997). Conversion survey 1997: Global disarmament and disposal of surplus weapons. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Brömmelhörster, J. (1997). KONVERII: Fostering of conversion by the European Union. Report 9. Bonn, BICC.Google Scholar
  4. Cost (1996). Memorandum of understanding for the implementation of the COST Aio action ’Defence Restructuring and Conversion.’ Brussels.Google Scholar
  5. Cunningham, K. (1997). Base closure and redevelopment in Central and Eastern Europe. Report II. Bonn, BICC.Google Scholar
  6. Demilitarised (1996). Military base conversion: The lessons from experience. Wiltshire, Network Demilitarised.Google Scholar
  7. Department of Defense (1995). Community guide to base reuse. Arlington, The United States Department of Defense, Office of Economic Adjustment.Google Scholar
  8. EAG [Economic Advisory Group of York University] (1992). The economic and social impact of reductions in defence spending and military forces on the regions of the Community. Luxembourg, EC.Google Scholar
  9. European Parliament (1997). Report of the Commission communication on the challenges facing the European defence-related industry: a contribution for action at European level. Strasbourg, European Parliament.Google Scholar
  10. Hermanis, V. (1995). Background report: major military bases of Russian Federation closed in Latvia since 1989. Bonn, BICC.Google Scholar
  11. Jauhiainen, J.S. (1997a). ‘Militarization, demilitarization and re-use of military areas: The case of Estonia,’ Geography 82:2, pages 118–26.Google Scholar
  12. Jauhiainen, J.S. (1997b). ’Re-use of military areas in local and regional development: The case of Estonia,’ pages 315–28 in Owsinski, J. and Stepaniak, A. (eds.). Integrations risks and barriers in the Baltic region. Warsaw, Interface Institute.Google Scholar
  13. Jauhiainen, J.S. and Mällo, R. (1997). ’Restructuring a former military housing area in Tartu,’ pages 14–15 in Andersson, H., Berg, P.G. and Rydén, L. (eds.). Community development: Approaches to sustainable habitation. Uppsala, The Baltic University.Google Scholar
  14. Küchle, S. (1998). ’Conversion of former military sites in Eastern Germany: A presentation at the conference Regional aspect of conversion.’ 27–28 March 1998, SCHIFF, Kiel.Google Scholar
  15. Lindemann, U. and Klussmann, J. (1996). Konversion militärischer Liegenschaften - eine weltweite Herausforderung. Report 8. Bonn, BICC.Google Scholar
  16. Mikko, M. (1998a). Jüri Luik: Eestit nähakse NATO liikmena [Interview with Estonia’s NATO ambassador Jüri Luik: Estonia is seen as a NATO member]. Postimees 12 June. Google Scholar
  17. Mikko, M. (1998b). Javier Solana: NATO uksel pole võtit [Interview with Javier Solana: There is no lock on the door of NATO]. Postimees 16 June.Google Scholar
  18. Wallensteen, P., Nordquist, K.-Å., Hagelin, B. and Melander, E. (1994). Towards a security community in the Baltic Region. Peoples of the Baltic 7. Uppsala, Baltic University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jussi S. Jauhiainen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations