Permits are a traditional tool of preventive state control. Depending upon the branch of law and function, they are also termed approval, authorization, consent or license. Permitting procedures are an integral part of German environmental law. Permits granted in other branches of law, such as building permits, are also of relevance here, as environmentally relevant aspects must be considered when they are issued (Wahl, 1994). Furthermore, one and the same case may require several different permits.
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