Transgenic Strawberry (Fragaria Species)

  • H. Mathews
  • R. K. Bestwick
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 47)


The Fragaria species are found in a diverse array of climates, including temperate, grassland, mediterranean, and subtropical. They fall into four natural ploidy groups, each with a basic chromosome number of 7; diploids, tetraploids, hexaploids and octoploids. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne, is a vegetatively propagated octoploid species (2n = 8x = 56) which originated in Europe around 1750 as a hybrid between the pistillate South American F. chiloensis Duch. and a North American F. virginiana Duch. (Martinelli 1992). Fragaria x ananassa Duch. is grown all over the arable world, while F. virginiana and F. chiloensis are native only to the New World. Fragaria vesca (wood strawberry) and F. moschata (musky strawberry) are also two species commercially propagated to a limited scale (Hancock and Luby 1993). Over the years a large number of different cultivars of strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. have evolved, each adapting to a specific region or environment.


Transgenic Plant Strawberry Fruit Strawberry Cultivar Rice Chitinase Gene Transgenic Strawberry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. An G, Watson BD, Stachel S, Gordon MP, Nester EW (1985) New cloning vehicles for transformation of higher plants. EMBO J 4:277–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Asao H, Nishizawa Y, Arai S, Sato T, Hirai M, Yoshida K, Shinmyo A, Hibi T (1997) Enhanced resistance against a fungal pathogen Sphaerotheca humuli in transgenic strawberry expressing rice chitinase gene. Plant Biotechnol 14:145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker C, Lea M, Engler D, Morgan A (1998) Efficient transformation of commercial strawberry cultivars. Congr on In Vitro Biology, May 30-June 3, 1998, Las Vegas, NV, USA. Abstract # P-1060Google Scholar
  4. Barritt BH (1980) Resistance of strawberry clones to Botrytis fruit rot. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 105:160–164Google Scholar
  5. Basiouny FM (1989) Ethylene evolution in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) during fruit development. Acta Hortic 265:363–368Google Scholar
  6. Beachy R, Loesch-Fries S, Turner NE (1990) Coat protein-mediated resistance against virus infection. Annu Rev Phytopathol 28:451–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker D, Kemper E, Schell J, Masterson R (1994) New plant binary vectors with selectable markers located proximal to the left T-DNA border. Plant Mol Biol 20:1195–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bringhurst RS, Voth V (1984) Breeding octoploid strawberries. Iowa State J Res 58:371–381Google Scholar
  9. Cameron JS, Hancock JF (1986) Enhanced vigor in vegetative progeny of micropropagated strawberry plants. HortScience 21:1225–1226Google Scholar
  10. Cameron JS, Hancock JF, Nourse TM (1985) The field performance of strawberry nursery stock produced originally from runners or micropropagation. Strawberry Prod 4:56–58Google Scholar
  11. Cameron JS, Hancock JF, Flore JA (1989) The influence of micropropagation on yield components, dry matter partitioning and gas exchange characteristics of strawberry. Sci Hortic 38:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ceponis MJ, Butterfield JE (1973) The nature and extent of retail and consumer losses in apples, oranges, lettuce, peaches, strawberries and potatoes marketed in greater New York. USDA, USDA Marketing Res Rep 996, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang C, Kwok SF, Bleecker AB, Meyerowitz EM (1993) Arabidopsis ethylene-response gene ETR1: similarity of product to two-component regulators. Science 262:539–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cocci C, Mezetti B, Rosati P (1994) Regeneration and transformation of strawberry. In VIIIth Int Congr of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, Firenze, Italy, 152 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Cordes S, Deikman J, Margossian LJ, Fischer RL (1989) Interaction of a developmentally regulated DNA-binding factor with sites flanking two different fruit-ripening genes from tomato. Plant Cell 1:1025–1034PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Damiano C (1980) Strawberry micropropagation. In: Conf on Nursery Production of Fruit Plants through Tissue Culture April 21–23, Beltsville, Maryland, pp 11–22Google Scholar
  17. De la Plaza JL, Merodio C (1989) Effect of ethylene chemisorption on refrigerated strawberry fruit. Acta Hortic 265:427–433Google Scholar
  18. Doyle JJ, Doyle JL (1990) Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue. Focus 12:13–15Google Scholar
  19. El-Kazzaz MK, Sommer NF, Fortlage RJ (1983) Effect of different atmospheres on postharvest decay and quality of fresh strawberries. Phytopathology 72:282–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. El Mansouri I, Mercado JA, Valpuesta V, Lopez-Aranda JM, Pliego-Alfaro F, Quesada MA (1996) Shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fragaria vesca L. Plant Cell Rep 15:642–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Finstad K, Martin RR (1995) Transformation of strawberry for virus resistance. Acta Hortic 385:86–90Google Scholar
  22. Galletta GJ, Draper AD, Maas JL (1989) Combining disease resistance, plant adaptation and fruit quality in breeding short day and day-neutral strawberries. Acta Hortic 265Google Scholar
  23. Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1968) Nutrient requirement of suspension cultures of soybean rootcultures. Exp Cell Res 50:151–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garfinkel DJ, Nester EW (1980) Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants affected in crown gall tumorigenesis and octopine catabolism. J Bacteriol 144:732–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Good X, Kellogg JA, Wagoner W, Langhoff D, Matsumura W, Bestwick RK (1994) Reduced ethylene synthesis by transgenic tomatoes expressing S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase. Plant Mol Biol 26:781–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gooding HJ (1976) Resistance to mechanical injury and assessment of shelf-life in fruits of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Hortic Res 16:71–82Google Scholar
  27. Graham J, McNichol RJ, Grieg K (1995) Towards genetic based insect resistance in strawberry using the cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene. Ann Appl Biol 127:163–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hancock JF, Luby JJ (1993) Genetic resources at our doorstep: the wild strawberries. BioScience 43:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Haymes KM, Davis TM (1993) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of the diploid strawberry. Acta Hortic 348:440Google Scholar
  30. Hondelman W, Richter E (1973) Susceptibility of strawberry clones to Botrytis cinerea Pers in relation to pectin quantity and quality of fruits. Gartenbauwissenschaft 38:311–314Google Scholar
  31. Horsch RB, Fry SE, Hoffman NL, Eicholtz D, Rogers SG, Fraley RT (1985) A simple and general method for transferring genes into plants. Science 227:1229–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hughes JA, Brown LR, Ferro AJ (1987a) Expression of cloned coliphage T3 S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene inhibits DNA methylation and polyamine biosynthesis in E. coli. J Bacteriol 169:3625–3632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hughes JA, Brown LR, Ferro AJ (1987b) Nucleotide sequence analysis of the coliphage T3 S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene and its surrounding ribonuclease III processing sites. Nucleic Acids Res 15:717–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Irsh VF (1991) Cell lineage in plant development. Curr Opin Genet Dev 1:169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. James DJ, Passey A, Barbara DJ (1990) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) using disarmed binary vectors. Plant Sci 69:79–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. James DJ, Passey AJ, Eastebrook MA, Solomon MG, Barbara DJ (1992) Progress in the introduction of transgenes for pest resistance in apples and strawberries. Phytoparasitica 20:83–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jefferson RA (1987) Assaying chimeric genes in plants. Plant Mol Biol 5:387–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jelenkovic G, Chin CK, Billings S (1986) Transformation studies of Fragaria x ananassa Duch. by Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. HortScience 21:695Google Scholar
  39. Jelenkovic G, Chin C, Billings S, Eberhardt J (1991) Transformation studies in cultivated strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. In: Dale A, Luby JJ (eds) The Third North American Strawberry Conference. Houston, Texas. Timber Press, Portland, ORGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones OP, Waller BJ, Beech MG (1988) The production of strawberry plants from callus cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 12:235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jungnickel F (1988) Strawberries (Fragaria spp. and hybrids. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Kader AA (1991) Quality and its maintenance in relation to the postharvest physiology of strawberry. In: Lyby DA, Lyby JJ (eds) The strawberry into the 21st century. Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp 145–152Google Scholar
  43. Khanizadeh S, Buszard D, Lareau MJ, Pelletier R (1991) Evaluation of strawberry cultivars with different degrees of resistance to red stele. Fruit Var J 45:12–17Google Scholar
  44. Kondakova V, Schuster G (1991) Elimination of strawberry mottle virus and strawberry crinkle virus from isolated apices of three strawberry varieties by addition of 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (5-azadihydrouracil) to the nutrient medium. J Phytopathol 132:84–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kramer MG, Kellogg JA, Wagoner W, Matsumura W, Good X, Peters ST, Clough G, Bestwick RK (1996) Reduced ethylene synthesis and ripening control in tomatoes expressing S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase. In: Kanellis AG (ed) Biology and biotechnology of the plant hormone ethylene. Crete, Greece. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 307–319Google Scholar
  46. Layton JG, Dhir S, Broyles D, Morrish F, Wilkinson J, DeBrecht G, Kaniewska M, Wu G, DeLaquil P, Hinchee M (1996) Transformation of strawberry using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In: World Congress on In Vitro Biology, Hot Topics, June 22–27 San Francisco, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  47. Lee ECM, de Foussard RA (1975) Regeneration of strawberry plants from tissue cultures. Comb Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 25:277–285Google Scholar
  48. Liu ZR, Sanford JC (1988) Plant regeneration by organogenesis from strawberry leaf and runner tissue. HortScience 23:1057–1059Google Scholar
  49. Lopez-Aranda JM, Pliego-Alfaro F, Lopez-Navidad I, Barcelo-Munoz M (1994) Micropropagation of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Effect of mineral salts, benzyladenine levels and number of subcultures on the in vitro and field behavior of the obtained microplants and the fruiting capacity of their progeny. J Hortic Sci 69:625–637Google Scholar
  50. Maas JL, Wang SY, Galletta GJ (1996) Health enhancing properties of strawberry fruit. In: North American Strawberry Growers Association Annual Meeting, Feb 11–14, Newport Beach, California, pp 11–18Google Scholar
  51. Manning K (1993) Soft fruit. In: Seymour GB, Taylor JE, Tucker GA (eds) Biochemistry of fruit ripening. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 347–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marcotrigiano M, Swartz HJ, Gray SE, Tokarcik D, Popenoe J (1984) The effect of benzyl amino purine on the in vitro multiplication rate and subsequent field performance of tissue-culture propagated strawberry plants. Adv Strawberry Prod 3:23–25Google Scholar
  53. Martin RR (1996) Strawberry viruses and their control: what’s new? North American Strawberry Growers Association Annual Meeting, Feb 11-14, Newport Beach, California, pp 24–28Google Scholar
  54. Martinelli A (1992) Micropropagation of strawberry (Fragaria spp.). In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Mathews H (1996) Invited feature presentation, “Control of ethylene synthesis in small fruits by genetic engineering” at the Annu Conf of Northwest Centre for Small Fruit Conference, Red Lion Hotel Columbia River, Portland, Oregon. Dec 4–5, 1996Google Scholar
  56. Mathews H, Wagoner W, Kellogg J, Bestwick RK (1994a) Strawberry transgenics: genetic transformation for control of ethylene biosynthesis. Int Congr of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture. Firenze, Italy, June 12–17,1994. Abstract # S7–26Google Scholar
  57. Mathews H, Cohen C, Wagoner W, Kellogg J, Dewey V, Wanek D, Lupulesa E, Schuster D, Bestwick R (1994b) Transformation of strawberry and raspberry for control of ethylene biosynthesis. 4th Int Congr of Plant Molecular Biology, Amsterdam, 19–24 June 1994, Abstr 2041Google Scholar
  58. Mathews H, Wagoner W, Kellogg J, Bestwick R (1995) Genetic transformation of strawberry: stable integration of a gene to control biosynthesis of ethylene. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 31:36–43Google Scholar
  59. Mathews H, Dewey V, Wagoner W, Bestwick RK (1998) Molecular and cellular evidence of chimeric tissues in primary transgenics and elimination of chimerism through improved selection protocols. Transgenic Research 7:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Murashige T, Skoog FA (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nehra NS, Stushnoff C, Kartha KK (1989) Direct shoot regeneration from strawberry leaf disks. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 114:1014–1018Google Scholar
  62. Nehra NS, Chibbar RN, Kartha KK, Datla RSS, Crobsy WL, Stushnoff C (1990a) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of strawberry calli and recovery of transgenic plants. Plant Cell Rep 9:10–13Google Scholar
  63. Nehra NS, Chibbar RN, Kartha KK, Datla RSS, Crobsy WL, Stushnoff C (1990b) Genetic transformation of strawberry by Agrobacterium tumefaciens using leaf disk regeneration. Plant Cell Rep 9:293–298Google Scholar
  64. Nehra NS, Stushnoff C, Kartha KK (1990c) Regeneration of plants from immature leaf-derived callus of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Plant Sci 66:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nehra NS, Kartha KK, Stushnoff C (1992) Plant biotechnology and strawberry improvement. Adv Strawberry Res 11:1–11Google Scholar
  66. Nogata Y, Ohta H, Voragen AGJ (1993) Polygalacturonase in strawberry fruit. Phytochemistry 34:617–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nuutila AM, Vestberg M, Kauppinen V (1995) Infection of hairy roots of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Plant Cell Rep 14:505–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nyman M (1993) Protoplast technology in strawberries. Doctoral Thesis at Uppsala University 1993. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Comprehensive Summarien of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science 451, Uppsala, pp 44Google Scholar
  69. Nyman M, Wallin A (1992) Transient gene expression in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) protoplasts and the recovery of transgenic plants. Plant Cell Rep 11:105–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perkins-Veazie P (1991) Clues in the mystery of strawberry fruit ripening. In: Dale A, Luby JJ (eds) The strawberry into the 21st century. Timber Press, Portland pp 172–173Google Scholar
  71. Poethig S (1989) Genetic mosaics and cell lineage analysis in plants. Trends Genet 5:273–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Popova IV, Konstantinova AE, Zekalashvili A, Zhananov BK (1985) Features of breeding strawberries for resistance to berry molds. Sov Agric Sci 3:29–33Google Scholar
  73. Sansavini S, Rosati P, Gaggioli D, Toschi MF (1980) Inheritance and stability of somaclonal variations in micropropagated strawberry. Acta Hortic 280:375–384Google Scholar
  74. Sawahel WA (1996) Transgenic strawberry. Rice Biotechnol Q 26:33Google Scholar
  75. Sjulin TM, Dale A (1987) Gametic diversity of North American strawberry cultivars. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 112:375–385Google Scholar
  76. Sorvari S, Ulvinen S, Hietaranta T, Hiirsalmi H (1993) Preculture medium promotes direct shoot regeneration from micropropagated strawberry leaf disks. HortScience 28:55–57Google Scholar
  77. Stewart RN (1978) Ontogeny of the primary body in chimeral forms of higher plants. In: Subtenly S, Sussex IM (eds) The clonal basis of development. Academic Press New York, pp 131–160Google Scholar
  78. Studier FW, Movva NR (1976) SAMase gene of bacteriophage T3 is responsible for overcoming host restriction. J Virol 19:136–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Swartz HJ, Galletta GJ, Zimmerman RH (1981) Field performance and phenotypic stability of tissue culture-propagated strawberries. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 106:667–673Google Scholar
  80. Testoni A, Lovatti L, Faedi W (1989) Shelf life and fruit quality of strawberry varieties and selections after storage. Acta Hortic 265:435–442Google Scholar
  81. Theiler-Hedtrich R, Wolfensberger H (1987) Comparison of plant and yield characteristics of in vitro and normal propagated strawberry plants. Acta Hortic 212:445–458Google Scholar
  82. Toyoda H, Horikoshi K, Yamano Y, Ouchi S (1991) Selection for Fusarium wilt disease resistance from regenerants derived from leaf callus of strawberry. Piant Cell Rep 10:167–170Google Scholar
  83. Uratsu SL, Ahmadi H, Bringhurst RS et al. (1991) Relative virulence of Agrobacterium strains on strawberry. HortScience 26:196–199Google Scholar
  84. USDA (1997) Fruit and tree nuts: situation and outlook report: Economic Research Service, Fruits and Tree Nuts/FTS-279/March-Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  85. Vrain TC (1994) Engineering genetic resistance to Botrytis fruit rot in strawberry and blueberry. In: 3rd Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon, 30 Nov-1 Dec 1994. Northwest Center for Small Fruit Research, 15 ppGoogle Scholar
  86. Waithaka K, Hildebrandt AC, Dana MN (1980) Hormonal control of strawberry axillary bud development in vitro. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 105:428–430Google Scholar
  87. Wolyn DJ, Jelenkovic G (1990) Nucleotide sequence of an alcohol dehydrogenase gene in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Plant Mol Biol 14:855–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wright WR, Billeter BA (1975) Marketing losses of selected fruits and vegetables at wholesale, retail and consumer levels in the Chicago area. USDA Marketing Res Rep 1017, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  89. Zabetakis I, Holden MA (1995) A study of strawberry flavour biosynthesis. In: Etiviant P, Schrier P (eds) Bioflavour 95: Analysis-Precursor studies-Biotechnology. INRA Paris, pp 211–216Google Scholar
  90. Zabetakis I, Holden MA (1996) The effect of 6-deoxY-D-fructose on flavour bioformation from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cv. Elsanta) callus cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 45:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Mathews
    • 1
  • R. K. Bestwick
  1. 1.Agritope Inc.PortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations