Protective Efficacy of Marek’s Disease Vaccines

  • R. L. Witter
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 255)

Abstract

For the past 30 years, the poultry industry has relied on a series of avirulent or attenuated live virus vaccines to provide protection to young chickens against natural challenge with field strains of Marek’s disease (MD). This strategy has been unusually effective. In the United States, losses from the condemnation at slaughter of young broiler chickens with visible lesions of MD have decreased from 1.5% in 1970 to 0.0121% in 1999, a reduction of over 99% (Fig. 1). Even more dramatic reductions are evident in Georgia and Delaware, states with intensive broiler production. Similar benefits have been realized in commercial layer and breeder flocks. Vaccination for the control of MD in the field has been one of the great successes in veterinary medicine.

Keywords

Depression Europe Lymphoma Attenuation DMSO 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson DP, King DD, Eidson CS, Kleven SH (1972) Filtered air positive pressure (FAPP) brooding of broiler chickens. Avian Dis 16:20–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson K, Eidson CS, Richey DJ (1971) Age susceptibility of chickens to Marek’s disease. Amer J Vet Res 32:935–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bacon LD, Witter RL (1992) Influence of turkey herpesvirus vaccination on the B-haplotype effect on Marek’s disease resistance in 15. B-congenic chickens. Avian Dis 36:378–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bacon LD, Witter RL (1994) Serotype specificity of B-haplotype influence on the relative efficacy of Marek’s disease vaccines. Avian Dis 38:65–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bacon LD, Witter RL, Fadly AM (1989) Augmentation of retrovirus-induced lymphoid leukosis by Marek’s disease herpesviruses in white leghorn chickens. J Virol 63:504–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagust TJ, Grimes TM, Dennett DP (1979) Infection studies on a reticuloendotheliosis virus contaminant of a commercial Marek’s disease vaccine. Aust Vet J 55:153–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball RF, Lyman J (1977) Revaccination of chicks for Marek’s disease at twenty-one days old. Avian Dis 21:440–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baxendale W (1997) Marek’s disease vaccines have to become more efficacious. World Poultry August: 20–21Google Scholar
  9. Biggs PM, de Boer GF, Burmester BR, von Bülow V, Kaleta EF (1979) Recommendations for control in the production of Marek’s disease vaccine. J Biol Stand March: 29–42Google Scholar
  10. Biggs PM, Milne BS (1972) Biological properties of a number of Marek’s disease virus isolates. In: Biggs PM, de-The G, Payne LN (eds) Oncogenesis and Herpesviruses. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, pp 88–94Google Scholar
  11. Biggs PM, Payne LN, Milne BS, Churchill AE, Chubb RC, Powell DG, Harris AH (1970) Field trials with an attenuated cell associated vaccine for Marek’s disease. Vet Rec 87:704–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Biggs PM, Powell DG, Churchill AE, Chubb RC (1972) The epizootiology of Marek’s disease. I. Incidence of antibody, viraemia and Marek’s disease in six flocks. Avian Pathol 1:5–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Biggs PM, Shilleto RFW, Milne BS (1980) A quantitative sequential study of viraemia and neutralising antibody to HVT and MDV in a commercial flock vaccinated with HVT. Avian Pathol 9:511–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Biggs PM, Thorpe RJ, Payne LN (1968) Studies on genetic resistance to Marek’s disease in the domestic chicken. Brit Poult Sci 9:37–52Google Scholar
  15. Blaxland JD, MacLeod AJ, Hall T (1975) Trials with Marek’s disease vaccines prepared from a turkey herpes virus and an attenuated Marek’s disease virus. Vet Rec 97:48–49Google Scholar
  16. Burgoyne GH, Witter RL (1973) Effect of passively transferred immunoglobulins on Marek’s disease. Avian Dis 17:824–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Buscaglia C, Risso M, Antonini E, Prio MV, Prada MG, Villat MC, del Barrio E (1999) Behaviour of a very virulent Marek’s disease virus in two vaccinated commercial chicken flocks in Argentina. Proc 48th West Poult Dis Conf 105–108Google Scholar
  18. Bülow VV (1977b) Further characteristics of the CVI988 strain of Marek’s disease virus. Avian Pathol 6:395–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bülow VV (1977a) Immunological effects of reticuloendotheliosis virus as potential contaminant of Marek’s disease vaccines. Avian Pathol 6:383–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bülow VV, Fuchs B, Vielitz E, Landgraf H (1983) Early mortality syndrome of chickens after dual infection with Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and chicken anaemia agent (CAA). Zbl Vet Med 30:742–750Google Scholar
  21. Calnek BW (1972) Effects of passive antibody on early pathogenesis of Marek’s disease. Infect Immun 6:193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Calnek BW (1973) Influence of age at exposure on the pathogenesis of Marek’s disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 51:929–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Calnek BW, Carlisle JC, Fabricant J, Murthy KK, Schat KA (1979) Comparative pathogenesis studies with oncogenic and nononcogenic Marek’s disease viruses and turkey herpesvirus. Amer J Vet Res 40:541–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Calnek BW, Schat KA, Peckham MC, Fabricant J (1983) Field trials with a bivalent vaccine (HVT and SB-1) against Marek’s disease. Avian Dis 27:844–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Calnek BW, Shek WR, Schat KA (1981) Latent infections with Marek’s disease virus and turkey herpesvirus. J Natl Cancer Inst 66:585–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Calnek BW, Smith MW (1972) Vaccination against Marek’s disease with cell-free turkey herpesvirus:interference by maternal antibody. Avian Dis 16:954–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cho BR (1977) Dual virus maturation of both pathogenic and apathogenic Marek’s disease herpesvirus (MDHV) in the feather follicles of dually infected chickens. Avian Dis 21:501–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cho BR, Balch RK, Hill RW (1976) Marek’s disease vaccine breaks: differences in viremia of vaccinated chickens between those with and without Marek’s disease. Avian Dis 20:496–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cho BR, Kenzy SG (1972) Isolation and characterization of an isolate (HN) of Marek’s disease virus with low pathogenicity. Appl Microbiol 24:299–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Choi CO, Sinkovic VP, Jackson CAW (1978) Development of neuralising antibody to turkey herpesvirus (HVT) in chickens with and without homologous maternal antibody. Vet Bull 48:5409Google Scholar
  31. Chubb RC, Churchill AE (1969) The effect of maternal antibody on Marek’s disease. Vet Rec 85:303–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Churchill AE (1985) Production of vaccines. In: Payne LN (ed) Marek’s disease. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, pp 251–266Google Scholar
  33. Churchill AE, Baxendale W (1973) Virus effect of lyophilized turkey herpesvirus - Marek’s vaccines in chicks with maternal antibodies against turkey herpesvirus. Wien Tierarztl Monatsschr 60:248–254Google Scholar
  34. Churchill AE, Chubb RC, Baxendale W (1969a) The attenuation with loss of oncogenicity of the herpestype virus of Marek’s disease (Strain HPRS-16) on passage in cell culture. J Gen Virol 4:557–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Churchill AE, Payne LN, Chubb RC (1969b) Immunization against Marek’s disease using a live attenuated virus. Nature 221:744–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cole RK (1968) Studies on genetic resistance to Marek’s disease. Avian Dis 12:9–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cronenberg AM, Van Geffen CEH, Dorrestein J, Vermeulen AN, Sondermeijer PJA (1999) Vaccination of broilers with HVT expressing an Eimeria acervulina antigen improves performance after challenge with Eimeria. Acta Virol 43:192–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Darteil R, Bublot M, Laplace E, Bouquet JF, Audonnet JC, Riviere M (1995) Herpesvirus of turkey recombinant viruses expressing infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP2 immunogen induce protection against an IBDV virulent challenge in chickens. Virology 211:481–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. de Boer GF, Groenendal JE, Boerrigter HM, Kok GL, Pol JMA (1986) Protective efficacy of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) CVI-988 CEF65 clone C against challenge infection with three very virulent MDV strains. Avian Dis 30:276–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. de Boer GF, Orthel FW, Krasselt M, Oei HL, Pereboom WJ, Barendregt LG (1981) Comparative 50% protective dose assays (PD 50) of Marek’s disease virus strain CVI988. J Biol Stand 9:15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. de Boer GF, Pol JMA, Jeurissen SHM (1988) Marek’s disease vaccination strategies using vaccines made from three avian herpesvirus serotypes. In: Kato S, Horiuchi T, Mikami T, Hirai K (eds) Advances in Marek’s disease research. Japanese Association on Marek’s Disease, Osaka, Japan, pp 405–413Google Scholar
  42. de Boer GF, VanVloten J, Van Zaane D (1980) Possible horizontal spread of lymphoid leukosis virus during vaccination against Marek’s disease. In: Biggs PM (ed) Resistance and Immunity to Marek’s Disease. Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg, pp 552–565Google Scholar
  43. Eidson CS, Anderson DP, King DD (1971) Resistance of progeny from parental stock of chickens immunized against Marek’s disease. Amer J Vet Res 32:2071–2076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Eidson CS, Kleven SH, Anderson DP (1973) Efficacy of cell-free and cell-associated herpesvirus of turkey vaccines in progeny from vaccinated parental flocks. Amer J Vet Res 34:869–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Eidson CS, Page RK, Giambrone JJ, Kleven SH (1976) Long term studies comparing the efficacy of cell-free versus cell-associated HVT vaccines against Marek’s disease. Poult Sci 55:1857–1863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Eidson CS, Page RK, Kleven SH (1978) Effectiveness of cell-free or cell-associated turkey herpesvirus vaccine against Marek’s disease in chickens as influenced by maternal antibody, vaccine dose, and time of exposure to Marek’s disease virus. Avian Dis 22:583–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Finkelstein A, Silva RF (1989) Live recombinant vaccines for poultry. Trends Biotechnol 7:273–277Google Scholar
  48. Friedman A, Shalem-Meilin E, Heller ED (1992) Marek’s disease vaccines cause temporary B-lymphocyte dysfunction and reduced resistance to infection in chicks. Avian Pathol 21:621–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gagic M, St Hill CA, Sharma JM (1999) In ovo vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with vaccines containing multiple agents. Avian Dis 43:293–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gavora JS (1975) Vaccination against Marek’s disease: effectiveness of cell associated and lyophilized herpesvirus of turkeys in 9 strains of leghorns. Poult Sci 54:1765Google Scholar
  51. Groot AJC, Albers GAA (1992) The effect of MHC on resistance to Marek’s disease in White Leghorn crosses. In: 4th International Symposium on Marek’s Disease, 19th World’s Poultry Congress, Vol. 1. World’s Poultry Science Assn., Amsterdam, pp 185–188Google Scholar
  52. Hansen MP, Van Zandt JN, Law GRJ (1967) Differences in susceptibility to Marek’s disease in chickens carrying two different B locus blood group alleles. Poult Sci 46:1268Google Scholar
  53. Heckert RA, Riva J, Cook S, McMillen JK, Schwartz RD (1996) Onset of protective immunity in chicks after vaccination with a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys vaccine expressing Newcastle disease virus fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase antigens. Avian Dis 40:770–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Jackson CAW (1998) Multiple causes of Marek’s disease vaccination failure in Australian poultry flocks. Proc 47th West Poult Dis Conf 49–51Google Scholar
  55. Jackson CAW (1999) Quality assurance of Marek’s disease vaccine use in hatcheries. Proc 48th West Poult Dis Conf 34–38Google Scholar
  56. Jackson CAW, Biggs PM, Bell RA, Lancaster FM, Milne BS (1974) A study of vaccination against Marek’s disease with an attenuated Marek’s disease virus. Avian Pathol 3:123–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jackson CAW, Sinkovic B, Choi CO (1977) Infectivity and immunogenicity of apathogenic and attenuated Marek’s disease virus vaccines. Proc 54th Ann Conf Austral Vet Assn 149–152Google Scholar
  58. Jen LW, Cho BR (1980) Effects of infectious bursal disease on Marek’s disease vaccination: suppression of antiviral immune response. Avian Dis 24:896–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jeurissen SHM, de Boer GF (1993) Chicken anaemia virus influences the pathogenesis of Marek’s disease in experimental infections, depending on the dose of Marek’s disease virus. Vet Quart 15:81–84Google Scholar
  60. Johnston PA, Liu H, O’Connell T, Phelps P, Bland M, Tyczkowski J, Kemper A, Harding T, Avakian A, Haddad E, Whitfill C, Gildersleeve R, Ricks CA (1997) Applications in ovo technology. Poult Sci 76:165–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Karaca K, Sharma JM, Winslow BJ, Junker DE, Reddy S, Cochran M, McMillen JK (1998) Recombinant fowlpox viruses coexpressing chicken type IIFN and Newcastle disease virus HN and F genes: influence of IFN on protective efficacy and humoral responses of chickens following in ovo or post-hatch administration of recombinant viruses. Vaccine 16:1496–1503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kawamura H, King DJ Jr, Anderson DP (1969) A herpesvirus isolated from kidney cell culture of normal turkeys. Avian Dis 13:853–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. King DD, Page D, Schat KA, Calnek BW (1981) Difference between influences of homologous and heterologous maternal antibodies on response to serotype-2 and serotype-3 Marek’s disease vaccines. Avian Dis 25:74–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Konobe T, Ishikawa T, Takaku K, Ikuta K, Kitamoto N, Kato S (1979) Marek’s disease virus and herpesvirus of turkey noninfective to chickens, obtained by repeated in vitro passages. Biken J 22:103–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kreager K (1996) Industry concerns workshop. In: Silva RF, Cheng HH, Coussens PM, Lee LF, Velicer LF (eds) Current Research on Marek’s Disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, pp 509–511Google Scholar
  66. Kreager K (1997b) A global perspective on Marek’s disease control in layers and layer breeders. World Poultry August: 14–15Google Scholar
  67. Kreager K (1997a) Marek’s disease: clinical aspects and current field problems in layer chickens. In: Fadly AM, Schat KA, Spencer JL (eds) Diagnosis and control of neoplastic diseases of poultry. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett Square, pp 23–26Google Scholar
  68. Kross I (1996) Isolation of highly lytic serotype 1 Marek’s disease viruses from recent field outbreaks in Europe. In: Silva RF, Cheng HH, Coussens PM, Lee LF, Velicer LF (eds) Current Research on Marek’s Disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, pp 113–118Google Scholar
  69. Landgraf H, Vielitz E, Huttner B (1981) HVT-viraemia and protection against Marek’s disease following intramuscular or subcutaneous vaccination with different viral doses as well as following thermal stress broiler chicks. Deut Tierarztl Woch 88:524–526Google Scholar
  70. Lee LF, Nazerian K, Boezi JA (1975) Marek’s disease virus DNA in a chicken lymphoblastoid cell line (MSB-1) and in virus-induced tumours. In: Biggs PM, de-The G, Payne LN (eds) Oncogenesis and Herpesviruses II. IARC Publications, Lyon, pp 199–204Google Scholar
  71. Lee LF, Sharma JM, Nazerian K, Witter RL (1978) Suppression and enhancement of mitogen response in chickens infected with Marek’s disease virus and the herpesvirus of turkeys. Infect Immun 21:474–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Li J, Zhao X, Yang J, Liu C, Li X, Tian Z, Xu Y (1996) Primary studies on immunoprotectivity of Marek’s disease virus DNA vaccine. In: Silva RF, Cheng HH, Coussens PM, Lee LF, Velicer LF (eds) Current Research on Marek’s Disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, pp 367–371Google Scholar
  73. Lin JA, Chen CP (1996) First isolation and characterization of very virulent Marek’s disease virus in Taiwan. J Vet Med Sci 58:1011–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Liu X, Guan E, Wu C, Zhang R (1996) Characterization of very virulent strains of Marek’s disease virus from vaccinated chickens in Eastern China. In: Silva RF, Cheng HH, Coussens PM, Lee LF, Velicer LF (eds) Current Research on Marek’s Disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, pp 142–147Google Scholar
  75. Lucio-Martinez B (1999) Impact of vv Marek’s disease on mortality and production in a multiple-age farm. Proc 48th West Poult Dis Conf pp 55–56Google Scholar
  76. Meulemans G, Halen P, Schyns P, Bruynooshe D (1971) Field trials with an attenuated Marek’s disease vaccine. Vet Rec 89:325–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Mitchell BW, Beard CW, Yoder HW (1989) Recent advances in filtered-air positive-pressure (FAPP) housing for the production of disease-free chickens. Avian Dis 33:792–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Morgan RW, Gelb JJ, Pope CR, Sondermeijer PJA (1993) Efficacy in chickens of a herpesvirus of turkeys recombinant vaccine containing the fusion gene of Newcastle disease virus: onset of protection and effect of maternal antibodies. Avian Dis 37:1032–1040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Morgan RW, Gelb JJ, Schreurs CS, Lutticken D, Rosenberger JK, Sondermeijer PJA (1992) Protection of chickens from Newcastle and Marek’s diseases with a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys vaccine expressing the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. Avian Dis 36:858–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Morgan RW, Kent J, Anderson AS (1998) Marek’s disease virus gC and meq mutants with dramatic reductions in tumour incidences and horizontal transmission. Avian Pathol 27:S89Google Scholar
  81. Nakamura H, Sakaguchi M, Hirayama Y, Miki N, Yamamota M, Hirai K (1992) Protection against Newcastle Disease by recombinant Marek’s disease virus serotype-1 expressing the fusion protein of Newcastle Disease virus. In: 4th International Symposium on Marek’s Disease, 19th World’s Poultry Congress, Vol. 1. World’s Poultry Science Assn, Amsterdam, pp 332–335Google Scholar
  82. Nathan DB, Lustig S (1990) Production of Marek’s Disease vaccine. Viral Vacc 14:347–365Google Scholar
  83. Nazerian K (1970) Attenuation of Marek’s disease virus and study of its properties in two different cell cultures. J Natl Cancer Inst 44:1257–1267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Nazerian K (1973) Studies on intracellular and membrane antigens induced by Marek’s disease virus. J Gen Virol 21:193–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Nazerian K, Lee LF, Yanagida N, Ogawa R (1992) Protection against Marek’s Disease by a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the glycoprotein B of Marek’s Disease virus. J Virol 66:1409–1413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Nazerian K, Witter RL, Lee LF, Yanagida N (1996) Protection and synergism by recombinant fowl pox vaccines expressing genes from Marek’s disease virus. Avian Dis 40:368–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Oei HL, de Boer GF (1986) Comparison of intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of Marek’s disease vaccine. Avian Pathol 15:569–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Okazaki W, Burmester BR (1971) The temporal relationship between vaccination with the herpesvirus of turkeys and challenge with virulent Marek’s disease virus. Avian Dis 15:753–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Okazaki W, Purchase HG, Burmester BR (1970) Protection against Marek’s disease by vaccination with a herpesvirus of turkeys. Avian Dis 14:413–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ono K, Takashima M, Ishikawa T, Hayashi M, Konobe T, Ikuta K, Nakajima K, Ueda S, Kato S, Hirai K, Yoshida I (1985) Partial protection against Marek’s disease in chickens immunized with glycoproteins gB purified from turkey-herpesvirus-infected cells by affinity chromatography coupled with monoclonal antibodies. Avian Dis 29:533–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Otaki Y, Nunoya T, Tajima M, Kato S, Nomura Y (1988) Depression of vaccinal immunity to Marek’s disease by infection with chicken anaemia agent. Avian Pathol 17:333–347Google Scholar
  92. Payne LN (1992) Marek’s disease. In: Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. Office International Des Epizootie, Paris, pp 629–638Google Scholar
  93. Phillips PA, Biggs PM (1972) Course of infection in tissue of susceptible chickens after exposure to strains of Marek’s disease and turkey herpesvirus. J Natl Cancer Inst 49:1367–1373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pol JMA, Kok GL, Oei HL, de Boer GF (1986) Pathogenicity studies with plaque-purified preparations of Marek’s disease virus strain CVI-988. Avian Dis 30:271–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Prasad LBM (1978) Effect of maternal antibody on viraemic and antibody responses to cell associated and cell free turkey herpesvirus in chickens. Brit Vet J 134:315–321Google Scholar
  96. Pruthi AK, Gupta RKP, Sadana JR (1987) Efficacy of bivalent vaccine against Marek’s disease. Res Vet Sci 42:145–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Purchase HG, Witter RL (1986) Public health concerns from human exposure to oncogenic avian herpesviruses. J Amer Vet Med Assn 189:1430–1436Google Scholar
  98. Rangga-Tabbu C, Cho BR (1982) Marek’s disease virus (MDV) antigens in the feather follicle epithelium:difference between oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV. Avian Dis 26:907–917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Rautenschlein S, Sharma JM, Winslow BJ, McMillen JK, Junker DE, Cochran M (1999) Embryo vaccination of turkeys against Newcastle disease infection with recombinant fowlpox virus constructs containing interferons as adjuvants. Vaccine 18:426–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Reddy SK, Sharma JM, Ahmad J, Reddy DN, McMillen JK, Cook SM, Wild MA, Schwartz RD (1996) Protective efficacy of a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys as an in ovo vaccine against Newcastle and Marek’s diseases in specific pathogen-free chickens. Vaccine 14:469–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Ricks CA, Avakian A, Bryan T, Gildersleeve R, Haddad E, Ilich R, King S, Murray L, Phelps P, Poston R, Whitfill C, Williams C (1999) In ovo vaccination technology. Adv Vet Med 41:495–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Riddell C, Milne BS, Biggs PM (1978) Herpes virus of turkey vaccine: Viraemias in field flocks and in experimental chickens. Vet Rec 102:123–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rispens BH, Van Vloten J, Mastenbroek N, Maas HJL, Hendrick JL (1972b) Control of Marek’s disease in the Netherlands. II. Field trials on vaccination with an avirulent strain (CVI 988) of Marek’s disease virus. Avian Dis 16:126–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rispens BH, Van Vloten J, Mastenbroek N, Maas HJL, Schat KA (1972a) Control of Marek’s disease in the Netherlands. I. Isolation of an avirulent Marek’s disease virus (strain CVI 988) and its use in laboratory vaccination trials. Avian Dis 16:108–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rosenberger JK (1983) Reovirus interference with Marek’s disease vaccination. Proc West Poult Dis Confpp 50–51Google Scholar
  106. Rosenberger JK, Cloud SS, Olmeda-Miro N (1997) Epizootiology and adult transmission of Marek’s disease. In: Fadly AM, Schat KA, Spencer JL (eds) Diagnosis and control of neoplastic diseases of poultry. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett Square, pp 30–32Google Scholar
  107. Ross LJN (1998) Recombinant vaccines against Marek’s disease. Avian Pathol 27:S65–S73Google Scholar
  108. Rudd HK (1996) Use of Marek’s vaccines - protecting our future. In: Silva RF, Cheng HH, Coussens PM, Lee LF, Velicer LF (eds) Current Research on Marek’s Disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, pp 347–352Google Scholar
  109. Saijo K, Konno N, Obata F, Sagawa T, Fujikawa Y (1972) The effect of maternal antibody against lyophilized Marek’s disease live vaccine (Cell-free HVT). Jap World Vet Poult Ass 33–34Google Scholar
  110. Sarma G, Greer W, Estep C, Winkler DC (1992) Field trial and immunogenicity studies on the polyvalent Marek’s disease vaccines in chickens. In: 4th International Symposium on Marek’s Disease, 19th World’s Poultry Congress, Vol. 1. World’s Poultry Science Assn., Amsterdam, pp 310–314Google Scholar
  111. Schat KA (1997) What to do if there is a Marek’s disease problem? World Poultry August:18–19Google Scholar
  112. Schat KA, Calnek BW (1978) Characterization of an apparently nononcogenic Marek’s disease virus. J Natl Cancer Inst 60:1075–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Schat KA, Calnek BW, Fabricant J (1982) Characterization of two highly oncogenic strains of Marek’s disease virus. Avian Pathol 11:593–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Schat KA, Calnek BW, Fabricant J, Graham DL (1985) Pathogenesis of infection with attenuated Marek’s disease virus strains. Avian Pathol 14:127–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Schat KA, Omar AR, Lee LF, Hunt HD (1996) Induction of glycoprotein B (gB)-specific cytotoxic T cells after vaccination with recombinant fowl poxvirus expressing gB. In: Silva RF, Cheng HH, Coussens PM, Lee LF, Velicer LF (eds) Current Research on Marek’s Disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, pp 432–435Google Scholar
  116. Schmidt U, Werner P, Reinholdt P, Grunert G, Walter I (1984) Effectiveness of Riems MD (Marek’s disease) vaccine on laying hens with different virus levels per immunization dose. Monatsh Vetinarmed 39:100–102Google Scholar
  117. Sharma JM (1984) Effect of infectious bursal disease virus on protection against Marek’s disease by turkey herpesvirus vaccine. Avian Dis 28:629–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sharma JM (1987) Delayed replication of Marek’s disease virus following in ovo inoculation during late stages of embryonal development. Avian Dis 31:570–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sharma JM, Burmester BR (1982) Resistance to Marek’s disease at hatching in chickens vaccinated as embryos with the turkey herpesvirus. Avian Dis 26:134–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sharma JM, Coulson BD, Young E (1976) Effect of in vitro adaptation of Marek’s disease virus on pock induction on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. Infect Immun 13:292–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sharma JM, Graham CK (1982) Influence of maternal antibody on efficacy of embryo vaccination with cell-associated and cell-free Marek’s disease vaccine. Avian Dis 26:860–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sharma JM, Lee LF, Wakenell PS (1984) Comparative viral, immunologic and pathologic responses of chickens inoculated with herpesvirus of turkeys as embryos or at hatch. Amer J Vet Res 45:1619–1623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Sharma JM, Witter RL (1983) Embryo vaccination against Marek’s disease with serotypes 1, 2 and 3 vaccines administered singly or in combination. Avian Dis 27:453–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sondermeijer PJA, Claessens JAJ, Jenniskens PE, Mockett APA, Thijssen RAJ, Willemse MJ, Morgan RW (1993) Avian herpesvirus as a live viral vector for the expression of heterologous antigens. Vaccine 11:349–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sonoda K, Sakaguchi M, Okamura H, Yokogawa K, Hamada F, Hirai K (1996) Expression of the NDV-F gene under the control of MDV1-GB promoter in recombinant MDV1. In: Silva RF, Cheng HH, Coussens PM, Lee LF, Velicer LF (eds) Current Research on Marek’s Disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, pp 408–413Google Scholar
  126. Spencer JL, Grunder AA, Robertson A, Speckmann GW (1972) Attenuated Marek’s disease herpesvirus: protection conferred on strains of chickens varying in genetic resistance. Avian Dis 16:94–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Spencer JL, Robertson A (1972) Influence of maternal antibody on infection with virulent or attenuated Marek’s disease herpesvirus. Amer J Vet Res 33:393–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Thornton DH (1985) Quality control and standardization of vaccines. In: Payne LN (ed) Marek’s disease. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, pp 267–291Google Scholar
  129. Tsukamoto K, Kojima C, Komori Y, Tanimura N, Mase M, Yamaguchi S (1999) Protection of chickens against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Marek’s disease virus (MDV) with a recombinant MDV expressing IBDV VP2. Virology 257:352–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Vallejo RL, Bacon LD, Liu HC, Witter RL, Groenen MM, Hillel J, Cheng HH (1998) Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting susceptibility to Marek’s disease virus induced tumors in F2 intercross chickens. Genetics 148:349–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. van Eck JHH (1997) Should we vaccinate intramuscularly or subcutaneously? World Poultry August:22–23Google Scholar
  132. Venugopal K, Bland AP, Ross LJN, Payne LN (1996) pathogenicity of an unusual highly virulentMarek’s disease virus isolated in the United Kingdom. In: Silva RF, Cheng HH, Coussens PM, Lee LF, Velicer LF (eds) Current Research on Marek’s Disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, pp 119–124Google Scholar
  133. Vielitz E, Landgraf H (1971) Vaccination tests against Marek’s disease by application of an attenuated Marek herpes virus and a herpes virus of turkeys. Deut Tierarztl Woch 78:617–623Google Scholar
  134. Vielitz E, Landgraf H (1972) Vaccination experiments against Marek’s disease by application of an attenuated Marek herpesvirus and a turkey herpesvirus. Prog Immunobiol Standard 5:141–148Google Scholar
  135. Vielitz E, Landgraf H (1985) Experiences with monovalent and bivalent Marek’s disease vaccines. In:Calnek BW, Spencer JL (eds) Proceedings of the international symposium on Marek’s disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett Square, PA, pp 570–576Google Scholar
  136. von dem Hagen D, Löliger H-C, Hartmann W (1980) The influence of maternally derived HVT-neutralizing antibody on Marek’s disease. In: Biggs PM (ed) Resistance and immunity to Marek’s disease. Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg, pp 271–276Google Scholar
  137. Werner O, Grunert M, Paesch R, Hahnewald R, Magunski S (1992) Comparative evaluation of vaccines with turkey herpesvirus and Marek’s disease virus strain CVI-988 in field trials in East Germany. In:4th International Symposium on Marek’s Disease, 19th World’s Poultry Congress, Supplement. World’s Poultry Science Association, Amsterdam, pp 21–26Google Scholar
  138. Willemart JP (1972) Marek’s disease. Study on the efficacy of three vaccines. Rec Med Vet 148:203–216Google Scholar
  139. Witter RL (1982) Protection by attenuated and polyvalent vaccines against highly virulent strains of Marek’s disease virus. Avian Pathol 11:49–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Witter RL (1983) Characteristics of Marek’s disease viruses isolated from vaccinated commercial chicken flocks: association of viral pathotype with lymphoma frequency. Avian Dis 27:113–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Witter RL (1985b) Association in broiler chickens between natural serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus infection and leukosis condemnations. In: Calnek BW, Spencer JL (eds) Proceedings of the international symposium on Marek’s disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett Square, PA, pp 545–554Google Scholar
  142. Witter RL (1985a) Principles of vaccination. In: Payne LN (ed) Marek’s disease. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, pp 203–250Google Scholar
  143. Witter RL (1985c) Review: vaccines and vaccination against Marek’s disease. In: Calnek BW, Spencer JL (eds) Proceedings of the international symposium on Marek’s disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett Square, PA, pp 482–500Google Scholar
  144. Witter RL (1987) New serotype 2 and attenuated serotype 1 Marek’s disease vaccine viruses: comparative efficacy. Avian Dis 31:752–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Witter RL (1988) Protective synergism among Marek’s disease vaccine viruses. In: Kato S, Horiuchi T, Mikami T, Hirai K (eds) Advances in Marek’s disease research. Japanese Association on Marek’s Disease, Osaka, Japan, pp 398–404Google Scholar
  146. Witter RL (1991) Attenuated revertant serotype 1 Marek’s disease viruses: safety and protective efficacy. Avian Dis 35:877–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Witter RL (1992b) Influence of serotype and virus strain on synergism between Marek’s disease vaccine viruses. Avian Pathol 21:601–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Witter RL (1992a) Safety and comparative efficacy of the CVI988/Rispens vaccine strain. In: 4th International Symposium on Marek’s Disease, 19th World’s Poultry Congress, Vol. 1. World’s Poultry Science Assoc, Amsterdam, pp 315–319Google Scholar
  149. Witter RL (1995) Attenuation of lymphoid leukosis enhancement by serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus. Avian Pathol 24:665–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Witter RL (1997) Increased virulence of Marek’s disease virus field isolates. Avian Dis 41:149–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Witter RL (1998) Control strategies for Marek’s disease: a perspective for the future. Poult Sci 77:1197–1203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Witter RL, Bacon LD, Nordgren RM (1996) Reproducibility of Efficacy tests for Marek’s Disease Vaccines. Proc 45th West Poult Dis Conf 72–74Google Scholar
  153. Witter RL, Burmester BR (1979) Differential effect of maternal antibodies on efficacy of cellular and cell-free Marek’s disease vaccines. Avian Pathol 8:145–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Witter RL, Gimeno I, Reed WM, Bacon LD (1999) An acute form of transient paralysis induced by highly virulent strains of Marek’s disease virus. Avian Dis 43:704–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Witter RL, Hunt HD (1994) Poultry vaccines of the future. Poult Sci 73:1087–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Witter RL, Lee LF (1984) Polyvalent Marek’s disease vaccines: safety, efficacy and protective synergism in chickens with maternal antibodies. Avian Pathol 13:75–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Witter RL, Lee LF, Bacon LD, Smith EJ (1979) Depression of vaccinal immunity to Marek’s disease by infection with reticuloendotheliosis virus. Infect Immun 26:90–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Witter RL, Lee LF, Fadly AM (1995) Characteristics of CVI988/Rispens and R2/23, two prototype vaccine strains of serotype 1 Marek’s disease virus. Avian Dis 39:269–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Witter RL, Lee LF, Sharma JM (1990) Biological diversity among serotype 2 Marek’s disease viruses. Avian Dis 34:944–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Witter RL, Li D, Jones D, Lee LF, Kung HJ (1997) Retroviral insertional mutagenesis of a herpesvirus: a Marek’s disease virus mutant attenuated for oncogenicity but not for immunosuppression or in vivo replication. Avian Dis 41:407–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Witter RL, Moulthrop Jr JI, Burgoyne GH, Connell HE (1970b) Studies on the epidemiology of Marek’s disease herpesvirus in broiler flocks. Avian Dis 14:255–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Witter RL, Nazerian K, Purchase HG, Burgoyne GH (1970a) Isolation from turkeys of a cell-associated herpesvirus antigenically related to Marek’s disease virus. Amer J Vet Res 31:525–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Witter RL, Offenbecker L (1978) Duration of vaccinal immunity against Marek’s disease. Avian Dis 22:396–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Witter RL, Offenbecker L (1979) Nonprotective and temperature-sensitive variants of Marek’s disease vaccine viruses. J Natl Cancer Inst 62:143–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Witter RL, Sharma JM, Fadly AM (1980) Pathogenicity of variant Marek’s disease virus isolants in vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens. Avian Dis 24:210–232Google Scholar
  166. Witter RL, Sharma JM, Lee LF, Opitz HM, Henry CW (1984) Field trials to test the efficacy of polyvalent Marek’s disease vaccines in broilers. Avian Dis 28:44–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Witter RL, Sharma JM, Offenbecker L (1976) Turkey herpesvirus infection in chickens: induction of lymphoproliferative lesions and characterization of vaccinal immunity against Marek’s disease. Avian Dis 20:676–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Witter RL, Sharma JM, Solomon JJ, Champion LR (1973) An age-related resistance of chickens to Marek’s disease: some preliminary observations. Avian Pathol 2:43–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Witter RL, Silva RF, Lee LF (1987) New serotype 2 and attenuated serotype 1 Marek’s disease vaccinem viruses: selected biological and molecular characteristics. Avian Dis 31:829–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Witter RL, Solomon JJ (1972) Experimental infection of turkeys and chickens with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT). Avian Dis 16:34–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Yonash N, Bacon LD, Witter RL, Cheng HH (1999) High resolution mapping and identification of new quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting susceptibility to Marek’s disease. Anim Genet 30:126–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Yoshida I, Yuasa N, Tsubahara H, Horiuchi T, Ishino S (1973) Dose effect of herpesvirus of turkeys on protection of chickens from Marek’s disease. Natl Inst An Hlth Quart 13:39–44Google Scholar
  173. Yuasa N, Yoshida I, Taniguchi T, Kawamura H, Wakabayashi T, Yamaguchi S, Takayanagi N, Sato S, Sekiya S, Horiuchi T (1975) Contamination of Marek’s disease vaccine with REV group of virus. Jap Vet Poult Assn 8–10Google Scholar
  174. Zander DV (1973) Head start and concurrent infection of a small percentage of birds with a naturally occurring mild Marek’s disease virus to reduce “Leukosis”condemnations in broilers. Proc 22nd West Poult Dis Conf 48–58Google Scholar
  175. Zander DV, Hill RW, Raymond RG, Balch RK, Mitchell RW, Dunsing JW (1971) Marek’s disease immunization procedures. Proc 20th West Poult Dis Conf 43–63Google Scholar
  176. Zander DV, Hill RW, Raymond RG, Balch RK, Mitchell RW, Dunsing JW (1972) The use of blood from selected chickens as an immunizing agent for Marek’s disease. Avian Dis 16:163–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Zander DV, Raymond RG (1985) Partial flock inoculation with a apathogenic strain of chicken herpes virus of Marek’s disease to immunize chicken flocks against pathogenic field strains of MD. In:Calnek BW, Spencer JL (eds) Proceedings of the international symposium on Marek’s disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett Square, PA, pp 514–530Google Scholar
  178. Zanella A, Bertoldini G, Mambelli N (1970) Attenuation of the pathogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Atti Soc Ital Sci Vet 24:622–624Google Scholar
  179. Zanella A, Granelli G (1974) Marek’s disease control: Comparative efficacy of cell-associated and cell-free lyophilized HVT vaccine. Avian Pathol 3:45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Zanella A, Marchi R, Tosi P (1985) Polyvalent vaccines for control of Marek’s disease. In: Calnek BW, Spencer JL (eds) Proceedings of the international symposium on Marek’s disease. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett Square, PA, pp 555–569Google Scholar
  181. Zanella A, Valantines J, Granelli G, Castell G (1975) Influence of strain of chickens on the immune response to vaccination against Marek’s disease. Avian Pathol 4:247–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Zelnik V, Tyers P, Smith GD, Jiang CL, Ross LJN (1995) Structure and properties of a herpesvirus of turkeys recombinant in which US1, US10 and SORF3 genes have been replaced by a lacZ expression cassette. J Gen Virol 76:2903–2907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Zygraich N, Huygelen C (1972) Response of chicks from vaccinated hens to inoculation with turkey herpesvirus. Vet Rec 90:281–282PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. L. Witter
    • 1
  1. 1.Avian Disease and Oncology LaboratoryUSDA Agricultural Research ServiceEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations