Advertisement

Peritoneal and Mesenteric Trauma

  • Armando Rossi
  • Giorgio Rossi
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Abdominopelvic traumas can produce contusions, dilacerations, peritoneal and ligamental avulsions, fractures of parenchymatous organs, perforation of the bowel, rupture of the biliary and urinary tracts, and tear or rupture of vessels with penetration of fluid (blood, urine, bile) or gas into the peritoneal cavity and the subperitoneal spaces.

Keywords

Blunt Trauma Abdominal Trauma Comput Assist Blunt Abdominal Trauma Ileal Loop 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Albanese CT, Meza MP, Gardner MJ, et al (1996) Is computed tomography a useful adjunct to the clinical examination for the diagnosis of pediatric gastrointestinal perforation from blunt abdominal trauma in children? J Trauma Injury Infect Crit Care 40:417–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander ES, Clark RA (1982) Computed tomography in the diagnosis of abdominal hemorrhage. JAMA 248:1104–1107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ball DS, Friedman AC, Radecki PD, Caroline DF (1988) Avulsed gallbladder: CT appearance. J Comput Assist Tomogr 12:538–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berger PE, Kuhn JP (1981) CT of blunt abdominal trauma in childhood. AJR Am J Roentgenol 136:105–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berland LL, Doust BD, Foley WD (1980) Acute hemorrhage into the gallbladder diagnosed by computed tomography and ultrasonography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 4:260–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borchers HD, Heller M (1986) Iatrogenic injuries. In: Heller M, Jend HH, Genant HK (eds) Computed tomography of trauma. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Breen DJ, Janzen DL, Zwirewich CV, et al (1997) Blunt bowel and mesenteric injury: diagnostic performance of CT signs. J Comput Assist Tomogr 21:706–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brody AS, Seidel FG, Kuhn JP (1989) CT evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma in children comparison of ultrafast and conventional CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 159:803Google Scholar
  9. Brody JM, Leighton DM, Murphy BL (2000) CT of blunt trauma bowel and mesenteric injury: typical findings and pitfalls in diagnosis. Radiographics 20:1253–1536Google Scholar
  10. Brunsting LA, Morton JH (1987) Gastric rupture from blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma 27:887–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bulas DI, Taylor GA, Eichelberger MR (1989) The value of CT in detecting bowel perforation in children after blunt abdominal trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 153:561–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Catalano O (1995) Il pneumoperitoneo da trauma toracico. Radiol Med 89:72–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cerva DS Jr, Mirvis SE, Shanmunganathan K, Kelley IM, Pais SO (1996) Detection of bleeding in patients with major pelvic fractures; value of contrast-enhanced CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 166:131–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chandler JG, Berk RN, Golden GT (1977) Misleading pneumoperitoneum. Surg Gynecol Obstet 144:163–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chintapalli K, Dodds WJ, Olson DL (1988) Computed tomography characteristics of intermesenteric hematomas. CT Comput Tomogr 12:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook DE, Walsh JW, Vick CW, Brewer WH (1986) Upper abdominal trauma: pitfalls in CT diagnosis. Radiology 159:65–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cox TD, Kuhn JP (1996) CT scan of bowel trauma in the pediatric patient. Radiol Clin North Am 34:807–818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Daneman A, Matzinger MA, Martin DJ (1983) Posttraumatic hemorrhage into the gallbladder. J Comput Assist Tomogr 7:59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Danne FD (1988) A perspective on the early management of abdominal trauma. Aust N Z J Surg 58:851–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Donohue JH, Federle MP, Griffiths BG, Trunkey DD (1987) Computed tomography in the diagnosis of blunt intestinal and mesenteric injuries. J Trauma 27:11–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Druy EM, Rubin BE (1979) Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal trauma. J Comput Assist Tomogr 3:40–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Erb RE, Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan (1994) Gallbladder injury secondary to blunt trauma: CT findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 18:778–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fabian TC, Mangiante EC, White TJ, Patterson CR, Boldreghini S, Britt LG (1986) A prospective study of 91 patients undergoing both computed tomography and peritoneal lavage following blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma 26:602–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Federle MP (1984) CT of upper abdominal trauma. Semin Roentgenol 19:269–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Federle MP (1994) Abdominal trauma. In: Gore RM, Levine MS, Laufer I (eds) Textbook of gastrointestinal radiology. Saunders, Philadelphia pp 2600–2606Google Scholar
  26. Federle MP, Jeffrey RB (1983) Hemoperitoneum studied by computed tomography. Radiology 148:187–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Federle MP, Goldberg HI, Kaiser JA, Moss AA, Jeffrey RB Jr, Mall JC (1981) Evaluation of abdominal trauma by computed tomography. Radiology 138:637–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Federle MP, Crass RA, Jeffrey RB, Trunkey DD (1982) Computed tomography in blunt abdominal trauma. Arch Surg 117:645–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Federle MP, Yagan N, Peitzman AB, Krugh J (1997) Abdominal trauma: use of contrast material for CT is safe. Radiology 205:91–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Foley WD, Gates JD, Kellman GM, et al (1987) Treatment of blunt hepatic injuries: role of CT. Radiology 164:635–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gay SB, Sistrom CL (1992) Computed tomography evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. Radiol Clin North Am 30:367–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Glazer GM, Buy JN, Moss AA, Goldberg HI, Federle MP (1981) CT detection of duodenal perforation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 137:333–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldstein AS, Sclafani SJA, Kupferstein NH, et al (1985) The diagnostic superiority of computerized tomography. J Trauma 25:938–944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gottesman L, Marks RA, Khoury PT, Moallem AG, Wichern WA Jr (1984) Diagnosis of isolated perforation of the gall-bladder following blunt trauma using sonography and CT scan. J Trauma 23:280–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hagiwara A, Yukioka T, Katayama M (1993) Streaky soft tissue infiltration appearance (“streaky appearance”) of the mesentery by enhanced CT scan in two patients with traumatic intestinal perforation. Jpn Assoc Acute Med 4:144Google Scholar
  36. Hagiwara A, Yukioka T, Satou M, et al (1995) Early diagnosis of small intestine rupture from blunt abdominal trauma using computed tomography: significance of the streaky density within the mesentery. J Trauma 38:630–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hamilton P, Rizoli P, McLellan B, Murphy J (1995) Significance of intra-abdominal extraluminal air detected by CT scan in blunt abdominal trauma. J Tauma 39:331–333Google Scholar
  38. Hara H, Babyn PS, Bourgeois D (1992) Significance of bowel wall enhancement on CT following blunt abdominal trauma in childhood. J Comput Assist Tomogr 16:94–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hangen SG, Walsh JW, Thompson WM (1995) Imaging of abdominal trauma. Imaging 7:22–32Google Scholar
  40. Hidaka H, Irie H, Hirata H, Shigematsu A, Matsukuma K, Tatsuma T, Era S (1990) Mesenteric hematoma; a pediatric case. Rinsho-Hoshasen 35:525–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hofer G A, Cohen AJ (1989) CT signs of duodenal perforation secondary to blunt abdominal trauma. J Comput Assist Tomogr 13:430–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jamieson DH, Babyn PS, Pearl R (1996) Imaging gastrointestinal perforation in pediatric blunt abdominal trauma. Pediatr Radiol 26:188–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jeffrey RB (1989) CT and sonograph of the acute abdomen. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Jeffrey RB Jr, Federle MP (1988) The collapsed inferior vena cava: CT evidence of hypovolemia. AJR Am J Roentgenol 50:431–432Google Scholar
  45. Jeffrey RB Jr, Federle MP, Wall S (1983) Value of computed tomography in detecting occult gastrointestinal perforation. J Comput Assist Tomogr 7:825–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jeffrey RB Jr, Federle MP, Laing FC, Wing VW (1986) Computed tomography of blunt trauma to the gallbladder. J Comput Assist Tomogr 10:756–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jeffrey RB Jr, Cardoza JD, Olcott EW ( 1991 ) Detention of active intraabdominal arterial hemorrhage: value of dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 156:725–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kane NM, Dorfman GS, Gronau JJ (1987) Efficacy of CT following peritoneal lavage in abdominal trauma. J Comput Assist Tomogr 11:998–1002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kane NM, Gronau JJ, Dorfman GS, et al (1989) Pediatric abdominal trauma: evaluation by computed tomography. Radiology 170:591Google Scholar
  50. Kane NM, Francis JR, Ellis JH (1989) The value of CT in the detection of bladder and posterior urethral injuries. AJR Am J Roentgenol 153:1243–1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kane NM, Francis IR, Burney RE, Wheatley MJ, Ellis JH, Korobkin M (1991) Traumatic pneumoperitoneum: implications of computed tomography diagnosis. Invest Radiol 26:574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Karnaze GC, Sheedy PF II, Stephen DH, McLeod RA (1981) Computed tomography in duodenal rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma. J Comput Assist Tomogr 5:267–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karp MP, Cooney Dr, Berger PE, Kuhn JP, Jewett TC (1981) Role of computed tomography in evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma in children. J Pediatr Surg 16:316–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaufman RA, Towbin R, Babcock DS, et al (1984) Upper abdominal trauma in children: imaging evaluation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 142:449–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kearney PA Jr, Vahey T, Burney RE, Glazer G (1989) Computed tomography and diagnostic peritoneal lavage in blunt abdominal trauma: their combined role. ArchSurg 124:344–347Google Scholar
  56. Kelly J, Raptopoulos V, Davidoff A, Waite R, Norton R (1989) The value of non-contrast-enhanced CT in blunt abdominal trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 152:41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kirks DR, Caron KH, Bisset GS III (1992) CT of blunt abdominal trauma in children: an anatomic “snapshot in time.” Radiology 182:633–632Google Scholar
  58. Krudy AG, Doppman JL, Bissonette MB, Girton M (1983) Hemobilia: computed tomographic diagnosis. Radiology 148:785–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kunin JR, Korobkin M, Ellis JH, et al (1993) Duodenal injuries caused by blunt abdominal trauma: value of CT in differentiating perforation from hematoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 160:1221–1223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lang EK (1990) Intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal organ injuries diagnosed on dynamic computed tomograms obtained for assessment of renal trauma. J Trauma 30:1161–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Levine CD, Patel UJ, Wachsberg RH, et al (1995) CT in patients with blunt abdominal trauma: clinical significance of intraperitoneal fluid detected on a scan with otherwise normal findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 164:1381–1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Levine CD, Patel UJ, Silverman PM, Wachsberg RH (1996) Low attenuation of acute traumatic hemoperitoneum on CT scans. AJR Am J Roentgenol 166:1089–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lewin JR, Patterson EA (1980) CT recognition of spontaneous intraperitoneal hemorrhage complicating anticoagulant therapy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 134:1271–1272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lis LE, Cohen AJ (1990) CT cystography in the evaluation of bladder trauma. J Comput Assist Tomogr 14:386–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Livingston DH, Lavery RF, Passannante MR, et al (1998) Admission or observation is not necessary after a negative abdominal computer scan in patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma: result of a prospective, muhi-institutional trial. J Trauma 44:273–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lopez FM, Bloncourt J, Eynius F, et al (1988) Traumatismes abdominaux. In: Lamarque J, Pujol J, Rouanet J (eds) Tomodensitometrie abdominale et pelvienne. Axone, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  67. Lowe FC, Fishman EK, Oesterling JE, et al (1989) Computed tomography in diagnosis of bladder rupture. Urology 33:341–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Maas R, Gürtler KF (1986) Trauma-induced space-occupying lesions. In: Heller M, Jend HH, Genant JK (eds) Computed tomography of trauma. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Madura MJ, Craig RM, Shields TW (1982) Unusual causes of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum. Surg Gynecol Obstet 154:417–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Marx JA, Moore EE, Jorden RC, Eule J Jr (1985) Limitations of computed tomography in the evaluation of acute abdominal trauma: a prospective comparison with diagnostic peritoneal lavage. J Trauma 25:933–937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McCort J (1976) Intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Radiol Clin North Am 14:391–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McCort JJ (1987) Caring for the major trauma victim: the role of radiology. Radiology 163:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mee S, McAninch J, Federle, et al (1987) Computerized tomography in bladder rupture: diagnostic limitations. J Urol 137:207–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Mindell HJ (1989) On the value of non-contrast-enhanced CT in blunt abdominal trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 152:47–48Google Scholar
  75. Mirvis SE (1989) Diagnostic imaging of the urinary system following blunt trauma. Clin Imaging 13:269–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K (1992) Computed tomography in blunt trauma. Semin Roentgenol 28:150–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mirvis SE, Gens DR, Shanmuganathan K (1992) Rupture of the bowel after blunt abdominal trauma: diagnosis with CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 159:1217–1221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Miyakawa K, Kaji T, Wakabayashi M, Hoshikawa Y, Tani I, Ashida H, Ishikawa T (1992) CT of intestinal injuries following blunt trauma. Nippon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai Zasshi 52:1653–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Motateanu M, Mirescu D, Schwieger AF, Laverriere C (1992) Computed tomography of retroperitoneal duodenal rupture in blunt abdominal trauma. Eur J Radiol 15:163–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. New PFJ, Aronow S (1976) Attenuation measurements of whole blood fractions in computed tomography. Radiology 121:635–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Nghiem HV, Jeffrey RB Jr, Mindelzun RE (1993) CT of blunt trauma to the bowel and mesentery. AJR Am J Roentgenol 160:53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Nghiem H V, Jeffrey RB, Mindelzun RE (1995) CT of blunt trauma to the bowel and mesentery. Semin US CT MRI 16:82–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Orwig D, Federle MP (1989) Localized clotted blood as evidence of visceral trauma on CT: the sentinel clot sign. AJR Am J Roentgenol 153:747–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Peitzman AB, Makaroun MS, Slasky BS, Ritter P (1986) Prospective study of computed tomography in initial management of blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma 26:585–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pombo F, Arrojo L, Perez Fonta J (1991) Haemoperitoneum secondary to spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma: CT diagnosis. Clin Radiol 43:321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Procacci C, Bicego E, Domperi P, Zimbardo L, Minniti S, Laganà D (1991) La IAG nelTimaging integrato dei traumi dei visceri pelvici. In: Romagnoli R, Del Vecchio E (eds) Diagnostica per immagini nelle urgenze. Idelson, NaplesGoogle Scholar
  87. Radin DR (1991) Intramural and intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to duodenal ulcer. AJR Am J Roentgenol 157:45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Raghavendra BN, Grieco AJ, Balthazar EJ, Megibow AJ, Subramanyam BR (1982) Diagnostic utility of sonograph and computed tomographyin spontaneous mesenteric hematoma. Am J Gastroenterol 77:570–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Rizzo MJ, Federle MP, Griffiths BG (1989) Bowel and mesenteric injury following blunt abdominal trauma: evaluation with CT. Radiology 173:143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Roberts JL (1996) CT of abdominal and pelvic trauma. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI 17:142–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rozler MH, Saxe J, MC Carroll KA (1995) Detection of free intraperitoneal air on computed tomography after blunt abdominal trauma. Emerg Radiol 2:84–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rubin GD, Jeffrey RB Jr, Walter JF (1991) Pancreatic microcystic adenoma presenting with acute hemoperitoneum: CT diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 156:749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Sandler CM, Hall JT, Rodriguez MB, et al (1986) Bladder injury in blunt pelvic trauma. Radiology 158:633–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis S, Sover E (1993) Value of contrast enhanced CT in detecting active hemorrhage in patients with blunt abdominal or pelvic trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 161:65–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis S, Reaney SM (1995) Pictorial review: CT appearances of contrast medium extravasation associated with injury sustained from blunt abdominal trauma. Clin Radiology 50:182–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis S, Sherbourne CD, Chiu WC, Rodriguez A (1999) Hemoperitoneum as the sole indicator of abdominal visceral injuries: a potential limitation of screening abdominal US fortrauma. Radiology 212:423–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Sher R, Frydman GM, Russell TJ, O’Donnell C (1996) Computed tomography detection of active mesenteric hemorrhage following blunt abdominal trauma. Trauma Injury Infect Crit Care 40:469–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sherck JP, Oakes DD (1990) Intestinal injuries missed by computed tomography. J Trauma 30:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shin MS, Berland LL, Ho KJ (1990) Small aorta: CT detection and clinical significance. J Comput Assist Tomogr 14:102–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shuman WP (1997) CT of blunt abdominal trauma in adults. Radiology 205:297–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Sivit CJ, Peclet M, Taylor GA (1989) Life threatening intraperitoneal bleeding:demonstration with CT. Radiology 171:430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sivit CJ, Taylor GA, Bulas DI, et al ( 1991a) Blunt trauma in children: significance of peritoneal fluid. Radiology 178:185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Sivit CJ, Taylor GA, Bulas DI, Bowman LM, Eichelberger MR (1991b) Blunt trauma in children: significance of peritoneal fluid. Radiology 178:185–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Sivit CJ, Taylor GA, Bulas DI, Kushner DC, Potter BM, Eichelberger MR (1992) Post traumatic shock in children: CT findings associated with hemodynamic instability. Radiology 182:723–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Sivit CJ, Eichelberger MR, Taylor GA (1994) CT in children with rupture of the bowel caused by blunt trauma: Diagnostic efficacy and comparison with hypoperfusion complex. AJR Am J Roentgenol 193:1195Google Scholar
  106. Sivit CJ, Frazier AA, Eichelberger MR (1995a) Prevalence and distribution of hemorrhage associated with splenic injury in children. Radiology 197:298Google Scholar
  107. Sivit CJ, Cutting JP, Eichelberger MR (1995b) CT diagnosis and localisation of rupture of the bladder in children with blunt abdominal trauma: significance of contrast extravasation in pelvis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1243–1246Google Scholar
  108. Skala J, Witte C, Bruna J, Case T, Finley P (1992) Chyle leakage after blunt trauma. Lymphology 25:62–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sorkey AJ, Farnell MB, Williams HJ Jr, et al (1990) Complementary roles of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and computed tomography in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. Radiology 175:289Google Scholar
  110. Strouse PJ, Close BJ, Marshall KW, et al (1999) CT of bowel and mesenteric trauma in children. Radiographics 19:1237–1250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Taylor GA, Fallat ME, Eichelberger MR (1987) Hypovolemic shock in children: abdominal CT manifestations. Radiology 165:643–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Taylor GA, Fallat ME, Potter BM, Eichelberger ME (1988) The role of computed tomography in blunt abdominal trauma in children. J Trauma 28:1660–1664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Taylor GA, Guion CJ, Potter BM, Eichelberger MR (1989) CT of blunt abdominal trauma in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 153:555–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Taylor GA, Kaufman RA, Sivit CJ (1994) Active hemorrhage in children after thoracoabdominal trauma: Clinical and CT features. AJR Am J Roentgenol 162:401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Trerotola SO, Kuhlman JE, Fishman EK (1990) Bleeding complications of femoral catheterization: CT evaluation. Radiology 174:37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Watanabe AT, Jeffrey RB (1987) CT diagnosis of traumatic rupture of the cisterna chyli. J Comput Assist Tomogr 11:175–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wing VW, Federle MP, Morris JA Jr, Jeffrey RB, Bluth R (1985) The clinical impact of CT for blunt abdominal trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 145:1191–1194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wolfman NT, Bechtold RE, Scharling ES, Meredith JW (1992) Blunt upper abdominal trauma: evaluation by CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 158:493–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Wolverson MK, Crepps LF, Sundaram M, Helberg E, Vas WG, Shields JB (1983) Hyperdensity of recent hemorrhage at body computed tomography: incidence and morphologic variation. Radiology 148:779–784PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Armando Rossi
    • 1
  • Giorgio Rossi
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Radiological SciencesUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  2. 2.Local Health Unit (ASL)Hospital of FidenzaFidenza (Pr)Italy

Personalised recommendations