Advertisement

Diffusion of Malignant Tumors of Intraperitoneal Organs to the Peritoneum, Ligaments, Mesenteries, Omentum and Lymph Nodes

  • Armando Rossi
  • Giorgio Rossi
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

The spread of tumors arising from intraperitoneal organs occurs by permeation of tissues occupying the interstices of mesenteries and ligaments, through the lymphatic visceral network and derivative collectors, by direct or indirect invasion of the peri toneum and subsequent intraperitoneal dissemination or by the hematic route (Table 13.1).

Table 13.1

Ways of tumoral diffusion

a) Through tissue interstices of mesenteries and ligaments

b) Through the peritoneum and its cavity

c) By lymphatic route

d) By venous route

Keywords

Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Comput Assist Pseudomyxoma Peritonei Primary Lymph Node Duke Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

General Considerations

  1. Angelelli G, Macarini L (1992) La TC del tratto gastroenterico. Minerva Medica, TurinGoogle Scholar
  2. Barth RA, Jeffrey RB Jr, Moss AA, Liberman MS (1981) A comparison study of computed tomography and laparoscopy in the staging of abdominal neoplasms. Dig Dis Sei 26:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brooke J Jr (1980) CT Demonstration of peritoneal implants. AJR Am J Roentgenol 135:323–326Google Scholar
  4. Charnsangavej C, Dubrow RA, Varma DGK, Herron DH, Robinson TJ, Whitley NO (1993) CT of the mesocolon. 2. Pathologic considerations. Radiographics 13:1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Choi BI, Lee WJ, Chi JG, et al (1990) CT manifestations of peritoneal leiomyosarcomatosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 155:799–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper C, Jeffrey RB, Silverman PM, Federle MP, Chun GH (1986) Computed tomography of omental pathology. J Comput Assist Tomogr 10:62–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deutch SJ, Sandler MA, Alpern MB (1987) Abdominal lymphadenopathy in benign diseases: CT detection. Radiology 163:335–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dorfman RE, Alpern MB, Gross BH, Sandler MA (1991) Upper abdominal lymph nodes: criteria for normal size determined with CT. Radiology 180:319–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Einstein DM, Singer AA, Chilcote WA, Desai RK (1991) Abdominal lymphadenopathy: spectrum of CT findings. Radiographics 11:457–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Esenstein ML, Shaw SL, Pak HY, et al (1983) CT demonstration of muhiple intraperitoneal teratomatous implants. J Comput Assist Tomogr 7:1117–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fukuja T, Honda H, Hayashi T, Kaneko K, Tateshi Y, Ro T, Maehara Y, Tanaka M, Tsuneyoshi M, Majuda K (1995) Lymphnode metastases: efficacy of detection with helical CT in patients with gastric cancer. Radiology 197: 705–711Google Scholar
  12. Giunta S, Tipaldi L, Diotellevi F et al (1990) CT demonstration of peritoneal metastases after intraperitoneal injection of contrast media. Clin Imaging 14:31–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goerg C, Schwerk WB (1991) Peritoneal carcinomatosis with ascites. AJR Am J Roentgenol 156:1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gore RM, Callen PW, Filly RA (1982) Lesser sac fluid in predicting the etiology of ascites: CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 139:71–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Grimaldi F, Brindicci D, Ettorre GC, Francioso G, Angone G, Monteduro M (1991) Carcinosi peritoneale. Radiol Med 81:660–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Halvorsen RA, Panushka C, Oakley GJ, Letourneau JG, Adcock LL (1991) Intraperitoneal contrast material improves the CT detection of peritoneal metastases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 157:37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hamrick Turner JE, Chiechi MV, Abbitt PL, Ros PR (1992) Neoplastic and inflammatory processes of the peritoneum, omentum, and mesentery: diagnosis with CT. Radiographics 12:1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Jeffrey RB (1980) CT demonstration of peritoneal implants. AJR Am J Roentgenol 135:323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jeffrey RB (1983) Computed tomography of the peritoneal cavity and mesentery. In: Moss AA, Gamsu GG, Genant HK (eds) Computed tomography of the body. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 986–995Google Scholar
  20. Jolies H, Coulam CM (1980) CT of ascites: differential diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 135:315–322Google Scholar
  21. Lee KT, Stanley RJ, Sagel SS, et al (1978) Accuracy of CT in detecting intra-abdominal and pelvic lymph node metastases from pelvic cancers. AJR Am J Roentgenol 131:675–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Levitt RG, Sagel SS, Stanley RJ (1978) Detection of neoplastic involvement of the mesentery and omentum by computed tomography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 131:835–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Levitt RG, Koehler RE, Sagel SS, Lee JKT (1982) Metastatic disease of the mesentery and omentum. Radiol Clin North Am 20:501–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Magnusson A, Anderson T, Larsson B, Hagberg H, Sundstrom CH (1989) Contrast enhancement of pathologic lymph nodes demonstrated by computed tomography. Acta Radiol 30:307–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matsuoka Y, Itai Y, Ohtomo K, et al (1991) Calcification of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric carcinoma: a CT demonstration. Eur J Radiol 13:207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Megibow AJ, Balthazar EJ ( 1986) Computed tomography of the gastointestinal tract. Mosby, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  27. Megibow AJ, Hulnick DH, Bosniak MA, et al (1985) Ovarian metastases. Computed tomographic appearances. Radiology 156:161–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Meyers MA (1973) Distribution of intra-abdominal malignant seeding: dependency on dynamics of flow of ascitic fluid. AJR Am J Roentgenol 119:198–206Google Scholar
  29. Meyers MA (1975) Metastatic seeding along the small bowel mesentery. AJR Am J Roentgenol 123:67–73Google Scholar
  30. Meyers MA (1988) Intraperitoneal spread of malignancies. In: Mayers (ed) Dynamic radiology of the abdomen: normal and pathologic anatomy, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, pp 91–178Google Scholar
  31. Meyers MA (1992) Radiologia dinamica del Taddome. Verduci, RomeGoogle Scholar
  32. Meyers MA, Oliphant M, Berne AS, et al (1987) The peritoneal ligaments and mesenteries: pathways of intraabdominal spread of disease. Radiology 163:593–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Mödder U, Fiedler V, Lorenz R (1981) Computertomographische Zeichen der Peritonealkarzinose. Fortschr Rontgenstr 136:60–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nelson RC, Chezmar JL, Hoel MJ, Buck DR, Sugarbaker PH (1992) Peritoneal carcinomatosis: preoperative CT with intraperitoneal contrast material. Radiology 182:133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Oliphant M, Berne AS (1982) Computed tomography of the subperitoneal space: demonstration of direct spread of intraabdominal disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr 6:1127–1137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oliphant M, Berne A, Meyers MA (1986) Subperitoneal spread of intraabdominal disease. In: Mayers MA (ed) Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract including the peritoneal cavity and mesentery. Springer, New York Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  37. Oliphant M, Berne AS, Meyers MA (1988) Imaging the direct bidirectional spread of disease between the abdomen and the female pelvis via the subperitoneal space. Gastrointest Radiol 13:285–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pandolfo I, Blandino A, Gaeta M, et al (1986) Calcified peritoneal metastases from papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary: CT features. J Comput Assist Tomogr 10:545–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Posniak HV, Tempany C, Demos TC, et al (1988) Computed tomography of posterior pararenal and properitoneal metastases. Urol Radiol 10:75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rubesin SE, Levin MS (1985) Omental cakes: colonic involvement by omental metastases. Radiology 154:593–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Solomon A, Rubinstein Z (1984) Importance of the falciform ligament, ligamentum teres, and splenic hilus in the spread of malignancy as demonstrated by computed tomography. Gastrointest Radiol 9:53–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Thoeni RF, Rogalla P (1996) CT for evaluation of carcinomas in the colon and rectum. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 16:112–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Walkey MM, Friedman AC, Sohotra P, Radecki PD (1988) CT manifestations of peritoneal carcinomatosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 150:1035–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Walkey MM, Friedman AC, Radecki PD (1989) Computed tomography of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Radiol Report 1:152–170Google Scholar
  45. Wechsler RJ, Miller CL, Kurtz AB, Needleman L, Schneck CD (1990) Anterior protrusion of retroperitoneal processes. A mimic of lesser sac or gastrohepatic masses. Clin Imaging 14:146–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Whitley NO, Bohlman ME, Baker LP (1982) CT patterns of mesenteric disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr 6:490–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

  1. American Joint Committee on Cancer (1992) Manual for staging of cancer. 4th edn. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Dachman AH, Lichtenstein JE, Friedman AC (1985) Mucocele of the appendix and pseudomyxoma peritonei. AJR Am J Roentgenol 144:923–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Fishman EK, Jones B, Magid D, Siegehnan SS (1983) Intraabdominal abscesses in pseudomyxoma peritonei: the value of computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 7:449–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kevin D, Gustafson KD, Karnase GC, Hattery RR, Scheithauer BW (1984) Pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: CT findings and CT guided biopsy. J Comput Assist Tomogr 8:335–338Google Scholar
  5. Masaryk TJ, Chilcote WA (1984) CT of pseudomyxoma peritonei: case report. Comput Radiol 8:43–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Matsuoka Y, Ohtomo K, Itai Y, Nishikawa J, Yoshikawa K, Sasaki Y (1992) Pseudomyxoma peritonei with progressive calcifications: CT findings. Gastrointest Radiol 17:16–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mayes GB, Chuang VP, Fischer RG (1981) CT of pseudomyxoma peritonei. AJR Am J Roentgenol 136:807–808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Miller DL, Udelsman R, Sugarbaker PH (1985) Calcification of pseudomyxoma peritoneifollowing intraperitoneal chemotherapy J Comput Assist Tomogr 9:1123–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Novotsky GJ, Berhn L, Epstein AJ, Lobo N, Miller SH (1982) pseudomyxoma peritonei. J Comput Assist Tomogr 6:398–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rieux D, Laufenburger A, Souler A, Caron-Poitreau C (1985) Aspects tomodensitometriques de la maladie gélatineuse du péritoine. J Radiol 55:297–302Google Scholar
  11. Seshul MB, Coulam CM (1981) Pseudomyxoma peritonei: computed tomography and sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 136:803–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Yeh HC, Shafir MK, Slater G, Meyer RJ, Cohen BA, Geller SA (1984) Ultrasonography and computed tomography in pseudomyxoma peritonei. Radiology 153:507–510PubMedGoogle Scholar

Gastric Tumors

  1. Andaker L, Morales O, Hojer H, et al (1991) Evaluation of preoperative Computed tomography in gastric malignancy Surgery 109:132–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Angelelli G, Macarini L (1989) Evaluation de la paroi gastrique par tomodensitometrie. J Radiol 70:289–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Angelelli G, Macarini L (1992) TC del tratto gastroenterico. Minerva Medica, TurinGoogle Scholar
  4. Angelelli G, Macarini L, Favia G (1990) Aspetti TC e correlazioni patologiche nell’adenocarcinoma e nel linfoma gastrico. Radiol Med 79:191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Angelelli G, Brindicci D, Macarini L (1991) La TC nello studio delle lesioni di parete dell’apparato digerente. Radiol Med 81: 83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arablinskii VM, Sedykh SA, Mamontov AS, Vashakmadze LA, Bakhmutskn AN, Aleinikova EI (1991) The role of computerized tomography in the diagnosis of regional metastases of cancer of the esophagus and the proximal part of the stomach. Sov Med 6:26–29Google Scholar
  7. Baert AL, Roex L, Marchai G, Hermans P, Dewllde D, Wilms G (1989) Computed tomography of the stomach with water as an oral contrast agent: technique and preliminary results. J Comput Assist Tomogr 13:633–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker ME, Silverman PM, Halvorsen RA, Cohan RH (1987) Computed tomography of masses in periportal/hepatoduodenal ligament. J Comput Assist Tomogr 11:258–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balfe DM, Koehler RE, Karstaedt N, Stanley RJ, Sagel SS (1981) Computed tomography of gastric neoplasm. Radiology 140:431–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Botet JF, Lightdate CJ, Zauber AG, Gerdes H, Winawer SJ, Urmacher C, Brennan MF (1991) Preoperative staging of gastric cancer: comparison of endoscopic US and dynamic CT. Radiology 181:426–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown BM, Federle MP, Jeffrey RB (1982) Gastric waU thickening and extragastric inflammatory processes, a retrospective CT study. J Comput Assist Tomogr 6:762–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chin SY, Lee BH, Kim KH, et al (1994) Radiological prediction of the depth of invasion and histological type in early gastric cancer. Abdom Imaging 19:521–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cho JS, Kim JK, Rho SM, Lee HY, Jeong HY, Lee CS (1994) Preoperative assessment of gastric carcinoma: value of two-phase dynamic CT with mechanical IV injection of contrast material. AJR Am J Roentgenol 163:69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cho JS, Kim JK, Rho SM, Lee HY, Jeong HY, Lee CS (1994) Preoperative assessment of gastric carcinoma: value of two-phase dynamic CT with mechanical IV injection of contrast material. AJR Am J Roentgenol 163:69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Choi BI, Ok ID, Im J, et al (1985) Exogastric cystic gastric leiomyosarcoma with unusual CT appearance. Gastrointest Radiol 13:109–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook AO, Levine BA, Sirinek KR, et al (1986) Evaluation of gastric adenocarcinoma: abdominal computed tomography does not replace celiotomy. Arch Surg 121:603–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dehn TCB, Reznek RH, Nocler IB, et al (1984) The preoperative assessment of advanced gastric cancer by computed tomography. Br J Surg 71:413–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dorfman RE, Alpern MB, Gross BH, Sandler MA (1991) Upper abdominal lymph nodes: criteria for normal size determined with CT. Radiology 180:319–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Favagrossa GM, Aletto C (1988) La TC dell’addome nella diagnosie follow-up delle neoplasie dello stomaco. Proceedings of the 33rd Congress of SIRM, Rome, pp 1225–1229Google Scholar
  20. Forzini F, Cappelli B, Ferrari F, Terrosi Vagnoli P (1982) La TC nella valutazione della diffusione del carcinoma gastrico all’addome superiore. Radiol Med 68:561–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Fukuya T, Honda H, Hayashi T, Kaneku K, Tateshi Y, Ro T, Maeharay Tanaka M, Tsuneyoshi M, Masuda K (1995) Lymphnode metastases: efficacy of detection with hellcal CT in patients with gastric cancer. Radiology 197:705–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fukuya T, Honda H, Kaneko K, Kuroiwat T, Yoshimitsu K, Irie H, Maehara Y, Masuda K (1997) Efficacy of hellcal CT in T-staging of gastric cancer. J Comput Assist Tomogr 21:73–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gossios K, Tsianos EV, et al (1996) CT evaluation of the resectability of gastric cancer post-chemotherapy. Abdom Imaging 21:293–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grosser G, Wimmer B, Ruf G (1985) The diagnostic value of computed tomography in carcinoma of the stomach. Fortschr Rontgenstr 142:514–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hada M, Hihara T, Kakishita M (1984) Computed tomography in gastric carcinoma: thickness of gastric wall and infiltration to serosa surface. Radiât Med 2:27–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Halvorsen RA Jr, Thompson WM (1987) Computed tomographic staging of gastrointestinal malignancies. Esophagus and stomach. Invest Radiol 22:2–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Halvorsen RA Jr, Thompson WM (1989) staging, and the follow-up role of imaging. Semin Uhrasound CT MR 10:467–480Google Scholar
  28. Halvorsen RA Jr, Thompson WM (1991) Primary neoplasms of the hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Straging and follow-up. Cancer 67 [Suppl 4]:1181–1188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hori M, Watanabe S, Matsubara T, et al (1984) Detection of lymph nodes of the stomach cancer with computed tomography. Rinshogeka 39:543–546Google Scholar
  30. Hori S, Tsuda K, Murayama S, Matsushita M, Yukawa K, Kozuka T (1992) CT of gastric carcinoma: preliminary resuhs with a new scanning technique. Radiographics 12:257–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Inzerillo M, De Maria M, Bianco BP, Calabrese A, Calistre V, Di Gesù C, Feo M (1988) Studio TC degll spazi sub-peritoneall perigastrici nei pazienti affetti da neoplasie dello stomaco. Proceedings of the 33rd National Congress on Radiology, Rome,pp 1721–1724Google Scholar
  32. Kleinhaus U, Militianu D (1988) Computed tomography in the preoperative evaluation of gastric carcinoma. Gastrointest Radiol 13:97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Koehler RE, Balfe DM, Stanley RJ (1989) Gastrointestinal tract. In: Lee JKT (ed) Computed body tomography with MRI correlation. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Komaki S (1986) Gastric carcinoma. In: Meyers MA (ed) Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg, pp 23–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Komaki S, Toyoshima S (1983) CT’s capability in detecting advanced gastric cancer. Gastrointest Radiol 8:397–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee KR, Levine E, Moffat RE, Bignongiari LR, Hermreck AS (1979) Computed tomographic staging of malignant gastric neoplasm. Radiology 133:151–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee KS, Choi YT, Lee JH, Park YH, Park KS, Ko YT, Lim JH, Auh YH (1994) Exophytic adenocarcinoma of the stomach: CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 163:77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Lee WB (1988) Left gastric and coeliac lymph nodes: a problem area for CT staging of carcinoma of the gastrooesophageal junction. Australas Radiol 32:230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Levine MS, Megibow AJ (1994) Stomach and duodenum: carcinoma. In: Gore RM, Levine MS, Laufer I (eds) Textbook of gastrointestinal radiology. Saunders, Phlladelphia, pp 660–683Google Scholar
  40. Matsuoka Y, Itai Y, Ohtomo K, et al (1991) Calcification of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric carcinoma: a CT demonstration. Eur J Radiol 13:207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Matsushita M, Oi H, Murakami T, et al (1994) Extraserosal invasation in advanced gastric cancer: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology 192:87–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Minami M, Kawauchi N, Itai Y, Niki T, Sasaki Y (1992) Gastric tumors: radiologie-pathologie correlation and accuracy of T staging with dynamic CT. Radiology 185:173–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Miyake H, Maeda M, Kurauki S, Watanabe H, Kawaguchi M, Tsuji K (1989) Thickened gastric walls showing diffuse low attenuation on CT. J Comput Assist Tomogr 13:253–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moss AA (1982) Computed tomography in the staging of gastrointestinal carcinoma. Radiol Clin North Am 20:761–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Moss AA, Schnyder P, Marks WM, Margulis AR (1981) Gastric adenocarcinoma: a comparison of the accuracy and economics of staging by computed tomography and surgery. Gastroenterology 80:45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ohkuma K, Hisashi N, Hiramatsu K (1984) Computed tomography for staging of gastric cancer. I to Cho 19:1313–1318Google Scholar
  47. Oliphant M, Berne AS (1982) Computed tomography of the subperitoneal space: demonstration of direct spread of intraabdominal disease. Comput Assist Tomogr 6:1127–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ozaki M (1984) Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer using CT scan. Nisho Gekaishi 17:1507–1516Google Scholar
  49. Ozaki M, Byu T, Watanabe Y, et al (1984) Diagnosis of metastatic lymph node of gastric cancer. Igakunoayumi 128:115–118Google Scholar
  50. Potente G, Osti MF, Torriero F, Scattoni Padovan F, Maurizi Enrici R (1994) La tomografia computerizzata nella stadiazione preoperatoria del cancro gastrico. Radiol Med 87:76–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Richter GM, Dux M, Roeren T, et al (1996) Gastrointestinale Diagnostik mit Hydrosonographie und Hydro-CT. 1. Magen-Karzinom. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 164:281–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rossi M, Broglia L, Arata FM, Di Girolamo M, Pétrone A, Coniglio M, Rossi P (1997) Accuratezza e riproducibilità diagnostica della tomografia computerizzata con distensione idrica e ipotonia indotta nella stadiazione pre-operatoria dei tumori gastrici. Radiol Med 94:486–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Rubesin SE, Levine MS, Glick SN (1986) Gastric involvement by omental cakes: radiographic findings. Gastrointest Radiol 11:223–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Scatarige JC, Di Santis DJ (1989) CT of the stomach and duodenum. Radiol Clin North Am 27:687–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Stell DA, Carter CR, Stewart I, Anderson JR (1996) Prospective comparison of laparoscopy, ultrasonography and computed tomography in the staging of gastric cancer. J Surg 83:1260–1262Google Scholar
  56. Sussman SK, Halvorsen RA Jr, lUescas FF, et al (1988) Gastric adenocarcinoma: CT versus surgical staging. Radiology 167:335–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Takao M, Fakuda T, Iwanaga S, Hayashi K, Kusano K, Okudaira S (1998) Gastric cancer: evaluation of triphasic spiral CT and radiologic. Pathologic correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr 22:288–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Terrier F, Schapira C, Fichs WA (1984) CT assessment of operability in carcinoma of the oesophagogastric junction. Gastroint Radiol 8:307–313Google Scholar
  59. Thompson WM, Halvorsen RA, Foster WL, et al (1983) Computed tomography for staging esophageal and gastroesophageal cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol 141:951–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Triller J, Roder R, Stafford A, Schröder R (1986) CT in advanced gastric carcinoma: is exploratory laparotomy avoidable? Eur J Radiol 6:181–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ziegler K, Sanft C, Weitz M, et al (1993) Comparison of computed tomography, endosonography, and intraoperative assessment in TN staging of gastric carcinoma. Gut 34:604–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Colonic Tumors

  1. Acunas B, Rozanes I, Acunas G, Celik L, Sayi I, Gokmen E (1990) Preoperative CT staging of colon carcinoma (excluding the rectosigmoid region). Eur J Radiol 11:150–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angelelli G, Macarini L, Lupo L, Caputi-Jambenghi O, Pannarale O, Mereo V (1990) Rectal carcinoma: CT staging with water as contrast medium. Radiology 177:511–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Angelelli G, Brindicci D, Macarini L (1991) la TC nello studio delle lesioni di parete dell’apparato digerente. Radiol Med 81:83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Balthazar EJ (1991) CT of gastrointestinal tract: principles and interpretation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 156:23–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Balthazar EJ, Megibow AJ, Hulnick D, Naidich DP (1988) Carcinoma of the colon: detection and preoperative staging by CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 150:301–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Balthazar EJ, Siegel SE, Megibow AJ, Scholes J, Gordon R (1995) CT in patients with scirrhous carcinoma of the GI tract: imaging findings and value for tumor detection and staging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 165:839–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker CD, Fucs WA (1986) Colorectal carcinoma. In: Meyers MA (ed) Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg, pp 253–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Charnley RM (1990) Imaging of colorectal carcinoma. Radiology 174:283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Charnsangavej C, Whitley NO (1993) Metastases to the pancreas and peripancreatic lymph nodes from carcinoma of the right side of the colon: CT findings in 12 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 160:49–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen YM, Ott DJ, Wolfman NT et al (1987) Recurrent colorectal carcinoma: evaluation with barium enema examination and CT. Radiology 163:307–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Diamond RT, Greenberg HM, Bouh IF (1981) Direct metastatic spread of right colonic adenocarcinoma to duodenum: barium and computed tomographic findings. Gastroint Radiol 6:339–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ellert J, Kreel L (1980) The value of CT in malignant colonic tumors CT. 4:225–240Google Scholar
  13. Freeny PC, Marks WM, Ryan JA, Bolen JW (1986) Colorectal carcinoma evaluation with CT: preoperative staging and detectionof postoperativerecurrence. Radiology 158:347–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Freeny PC, Marks WM, Ryan JA, et al ( 1987) Computed tomography of colorectal carcinoma: preoperative staging and detection of recurrence. Semin Uhrasound CT MR 8:432–445Google Scholar
  15. Gazelle GS, Gaa J, Saini S, Shellito P (1995) Staging of the colon carcinoma using water enema CT. J Comput Assist Tomogr 19:87–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gossios KJ, Tsianos EV, Kontogiannis DS, et al (1992) Water as contrast medium for computed tomography study of colonic wall lesions. Gastrointest Radiol 17:125–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Granfield CAJ, Charnsangavej C, Dubrow RA, et al (1992) Regional lymph node metastases in carcinoma of the left side of the colon and rectum: CT demonstration. AJR Am J Roentgenol 159:757–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hara AK, Johnson CD, Reed JE, et al (1996) Colorectal polyp detection with CT colography: two-versus three-dimensional techniques. Work in progress. Radiology 200:49–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hulnick DH, Megibow AJ, Balthazar EJ, et al (1987) Perforated colorectal neoplasms: correlation of cHnical, contrast enema and CT examinations. Radiology 164:611–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Keeney G, Jafri SZH, Mezwa DG (1989) Computed tomographic evaluation and staging. Gastrointest Radiol 14:65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kelvin FM, Maglinte DT (1987) Colorectal carcinoma. A radiologic and clinical rewiew. Radiology 164:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Krestin GP, Beyer D, Lorenz R (1985) Secondary involvement of the transverse colon by tumors of the pelvis: spread of malignancies along the greater omentum. Gastroint Radiol 10:283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mayes GB, Zornoza J (1980) Computed tomography of colon carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 135:43–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. McDaniel K, Charnsangavej C, Dubrow RA, Varma DGK, Granfield CAJ, Curley S (1993) Pathway of nodal metastasis in carcinomas of the cecum, ascending colon and transverse colon: CT demonstration. AJR Am J Roentgenol 161:61–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Moss A A (1989) Imaging of colorectal carcinoma. Radiology 170:308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Okizuka H, Sugimura K, Shinozaki N, Watanabe K (1995) Colorectal carcinoma: evaluation with uhrafast CT. Clin Imaging 19:247–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rubesin SE, Levin MS (1985) Omental cakes: colonic involvement by omental metastases. Radiology 154:593–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Scharling ES, Wolfman NT, Bechtold RE (1996) Computed tomography evaluation of colorectal carcinoma. Semin Roentgenol 31:142–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Solomon A, Bar-Ziv J, Stern D (1988) Staging cecal and ascending colon carcinoma with computed tomography. Gastrointest Radiol 13:152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thoeni RF (1989) CT evaluations of carcinomas of the colon and rectum. Radiol Clin North Am 27:731–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Thoeni RF (1991) Colorectal cancer: cross-sectional imaging for staging of primary tumor and detection of local recurrence. AJR Am J Roentgenol 156:909–915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Thoeni RF, Laufer I (1994) Polyps and cancer. In: Gore RM, Levine MS, Laufer I (eds) Textbook of gastrointestinal radiology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Thoeni RF, Moss AA, Schnyder P, et al (1981) Detection and staging of primary rectal and rectosigmoid cancer by computed tomography. Radiology 141:135–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Thompson WM, Halvorsen RA, Foster WL Jr, et al (1986) Preoperative and postoperative CT staging of rectosigmoid carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 146:703–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Turnbull RB, Kyle K (1967) Cancer of colon: the influence of the no touch isolation technique on survival rates. Ann Surg 160:420–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zerhouni ER, Rutter C, Hamilton SR, Balfe DM, Megibow AT, Francis IR, Moss AA, Heiken JP, Tempany CMC, Aisen AM, Weinreb JC, Gatsonis C, Neil BJ (1996) CT and MR imaging in the staging of colorectal carcinoma: report of the Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group II. Radiology 200:443–451PubMedGoogle Scholar

Gallbladder Tumors

  1. Araki T, Hihara T, Karikomi M, et al (1988a) Hepatocellular carcinoma: metastatic abdominal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography. Gastrointest Radiol 13:247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Araki T, Hihara T, Karikomi M, Kachi K, Uchiyama G (1988b) Intraluminal papillary carcinoma of the gallbladder: prognostic value of computed tomography. Gastrointest Radiol 13:261–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker ME, Silverman PM, Halvorsen RA Jr, Cohan RH (1987) Computed tomography of masses in periportal/hepatoduodenal ligament. J Comput Assist Tomogr 11:258–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Colher NA, Carr D, Hemingway A, Blumgart LH (1984) Preoperative diagnosis and its effect on the treatment of carcinomaofthe gallbladder. Surg Gynecol Obstet 159:465–470Google Scholar
  5. Engels JT, Balfe DM, Lee JKT (1989) Biliary carcinoma: CT evaluation of extrahepatic spread. Radiology 172:35–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fahim RB, McDonald JR, Richard JC, Ferris DO (1962) Carcinoma of the galbladder: a study of its modes of spread. Ann Surg 156:114–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fraquet T, Monets M, Ruize AY, Jimenez FJ, Cozcolluela R (1991) Primary gallbladder carcinoma: imaging findings in 50 patients with pathologic correlation. Gastrointest Radiol 16:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fuhz PJ, Skucas J, Weiss SL (1988) Comparative imaging of gallbladder cancer. J Clin Gastroenterol 6:683–692Google Scholar
  9. Harris RD (1979) Computed tomography of retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy: benign or malignant? Comput Tomogr 3:73–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Itai Y, Araki T, Yoshikawa K, Furui S, Yashiro N, Tasaka A (1980) Computed tomography of gallbladder carcinoma. Radiology 137:713–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Lane J, Buck JL, Zeman RK (1989) Primary carcinoma of the gallbladder: a pictorial essay. Radiographics 9:209–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Magnano San Lio V, Milone P, Coppola G, Dall’Aira S, Magnano M, Patanè D, Petrillo G (1990) La TC nello staging delle neoplasie della colecisti. Radiol Med 80:451–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mori H, Aikawa H, Hirao K, et al (1989) Exophytic spread of hepatobiliary disease via perihepatic ligaments: demonstration with CT and US. Radiology 172:41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Nesbit GM, Johnson CD, James EM, et al (1988) Cholangiocarcinoma: diagnosis and evaluation of resectability by CT and sonography as procedures complementary to cholangiography AJR Am J Roentgenol 151:933–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ohtani T, Shirai Y, Tsukada K, Hatakeyama K, Muto T (1993) Carcinoma of the gallbladder: CT evaluation of lymphatic spread. Radiology 189:875–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ohtani T, Shirai Y, Tsukada K, et al (1996) Spread of gallbladder carcinoma: CT evaluation with pathologic correlation. Abdom Imaging 21:195–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Scribano E, Saccà F, Pandolfo I, et al (1986) Rilievi diagnostici TC del cancro della colecisti. Ital Curr Radiol 5:217–220Google Scholar
  18. Shirai Y, Yoshida K, Tsukada K, Ohtani T, Muto T (1992) Identification of the regional lymphatic system of the gallbladder by vital staining. Br J Surg 79:659–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Winstein JB, Heiken JP, Lee JK, et al (1986) High resolution CT of the porta hepatis and hepatoduodenal ligament. Radiographics 6:55–74Google Scholar
  20. Zeman RK, Schieber M, Clark LR, et al (1985) The clinical and imaging spectrum of pancreatoduodenal lymph node enlargement. AJR Am J Roentgenol 144:1223–1227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Zirinsky K, Auh YH, Rubenstein WA, Kneeland JB, Whalen JP, Kazam E (1985) The portacaval space: CT with MR correlation. Radiology 156:453–460PubMedGoogle Scholar

Ovarian Tumors

  1. Amendola MA (1985) The role of CT in the evaluation of ovarian malignancy. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging 24:329–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amendola MA, Walsh JW, Amendola BE, Tisnado J, Hall DJ, Goplerud DR (1981) Computed tomography in the evaluation of carcinoma of the ovary. J Comput Assist Tomogr 5:179–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brenner DE, Shaff MI, Jones HW, Grosh WW, Greco FA, Burnett CS (1985) Abdominopelvic computed tomography: evaluation in patients undergoing second-look laparotomy for ovarian carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 65:715–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Buist MR, Golding RP, Burger CW, et al (1994) Comparative evaluation of diagnostic methods in ovarian carcinoma with emphasis on CT and MRI. Gynecol Oncol 52:191–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buy JN, Moss AA, Ghossain MA, Sciot C, Malbec L, Vadrot D, Taniel BJ, Pecroix Y (1988) Peritoneal implants from ovarian tumors: CT findings. Radiology 169:691–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Feldman GB, Knapp RC (1974) Lymphatic drainage of the peritoneal cavity and its significance in ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 119:991–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ferrozzi F, Rossi A (1991) Aspects tomodensitometriques des metastases à forme calcifiante. A propos de 40 cas. J Radiol 72:305–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Forstner R, Hrirack H, Occhipinti KA, Powell CB, Francel SD, Stern JL (1995) Ovarian cancer: staging with CT and MR imaging. Radiology 197:619–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fukuda T, Ikeuchi M, Hashimoto H, et al (1986) Computed tomography of ovarian masses. J Comput Assist Tomogr 10:990–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghossian MA, Buy JN, Ligneres C, et al (1991) Epithelial tumors of the ovary: comparison of MR and CT findings. Radiology 181:863–878Google Scholar
  11. Giunta S, Tipaldi L, Diotallevi F, et al (1990) Demonstration of peritoneal metastases after intraperitoneal injection of contrast media. Clin Imaging 14:31–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Giwerc M, Masselot J, George M, Rochard F, Haie C (1986) Intérêt de l’examen tomodensitométrique dans la surveillance des cancers de l’ovaire. A propos de 69 observations. J Radiol 67:769–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Jaquet P, Jelinek JS, Steves MA, Sugarbaker PH (1993) Evaluation of computed tomography in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer 72:1631–1636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson RJ, Blackledge G, Eddleston B, Crowther D (1983) Abdomino-pelvic computed tomography in the management of ovarian carcinoma. Radiology 146:447–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Krestin GP, Beyer D, Lorenz R (1985) Secondary involvement of the transverse colon by tumors of the pelvis: spread of malignancies along the greater omentum. Gastrointest Radiol 10:283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kalovidouris A, Gouliamos A, Pontifex GR, Gennatas K, Dardoufas K, Papavasiliou C (1984) Computed tomography of ovarian carcinoma. Acta Radiol 25:203–208Google Scholar
  17. Kerr-Wilson RHJ, Shingleton HM, Orr JW, Hatch KD (1984) The use of uhrasound and computed tomography scanning in the management of gynecologic cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol 18:54–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee KT, Stanley RJ, Sagel SS, McClennan BL (1978) Accuracy of CT in detecting intra-abdominal and pelvic lymph node metastases from pelvic cancers. AJR Am J Roentgenol 131:675–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Low RN, Carter WD, Saleh F, Sigeti JS (1995) Ovarian cancer: comparison of findings with perfluorocarbon-enhanced MR imaging, In-lll-CYT-103 immunoscintigraphy, and CT. Radiology 195:391–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lundstedt C, Holmin T, Thorvinger B (1992) Peritoneal ovarian metastases simulating liver parenchymal metastases. Gastroint Radiol 17:250–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maxwell AJ, Boggis CRM, Sambrook P (1990) Computed tomographic peritoneography in the investigation of abdommal wall and genital swelling in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Radiol 41:100–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Megibow AJ, Hulnick DH, Bosniak MA, et al (1985) Ovarian metastases. Computed tomographic appearances. Radiology 156:161–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Megibow AJ, Bosniak MA, Ho AG, Beller U, Hulnick DH, Beckman EM (1988) Accuracy of CT in detection of persistent or recurrent ovarian carcinoma: correlation with secondlook laparotomy. Radiology 166:341–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mitchell DG, Hill MC, Hill S, Zaloudek C (1986) Serous carcinoma of the ovary: CT identification of metastatic calcified implants. Radiology 158:649–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Miller DS, Spirtos NM, Ballon SC, et al (1992) Critical reassessment of second look laparotomy for epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer 69:502–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moncada R, Cooper RA, Garces M, Badrinath K (1974) Calcified metastases from malignant ovarian carcinoma. Radiology 113:31–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Murphy D, Hughes PM, Zammit-Maempel I (1992) Computed tomographic assessment of intraperitoneal fluid distribution prior to intraperitoneal chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. Br J Radiol 65:295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nelson BE, Rosenfield AT, Schwartz PE (1993) Preoperative abdominopelvic computed tomographic prediction of optimal cytoreduction in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 11:166–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Pandolfo I, Blandino A, Gaeta M, et al (1986) Calcified peritoneal metastases from papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary: CT features. J Comput Assist Tomogr 10:545–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pectasides D, Kayianni H, Facou A, Bobotas N, Barbounis V, Zis J, Athanassiou A (1991) Correlation of abdominal tomography scanning and second-look operation findings in ovarian cancer patients. Am J Clin Oncol 14:457–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rieber A, Brambs HJ (1990) A calcified tumor in the mesenterium. Ovarian carcinoma with a calcified metastasis in the abdominal wall (“omental cake”), histologically cystadenocarcinoma. Radiologe 30:145–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Saito T (1991) Role of X-ray CT in the evaluation of extension of ovarian cancer. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 43:93–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Sanders RC, McNeil BJ, Einberg HJ, et al (1983) A prospective study of computed tomography and ultrasound in the detection and staging of pelvic masses. Radiology 146:439–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Semelka RC, Lawrence PH, Shoenut JP, et al (1993) Primary ovarian cancer: prospective comparison of contrastenhanced CT and pre-and postcontrast fat-suppressed MR imaging, with histologic correlation. JMRI 3:99–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shiels RA, Peel KR, MacDonald HM, Thorogood J, Robinson PJ (1985) A prospective trial of computed tomography in the staging of ovarian malignancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 92:407–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Silverman PM, Osborne M, Dunnick NR, Bandy LC (1988) CT prior to second look operation in ovarian cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol 150:829–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Soloman A, Brenner HJ, Rubinstein Z, Chaitchik S, Morag B (1983) Computerized tomography in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 15:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Teplik JG, Haskin ML, Alavi A (1976) Calcified intraperitoneal metastases from ovarian carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 127:1003–1006Google Scholar
  39. Walkey MM, Friedman AC, Sohotra P, Radecki PD (1988) CT manifestations of peritoneal carcinomatosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 150:1035–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Whitley NO, Brenner DE, Francis A, Kwon T, Villa Santa U, Aisner J, Wiernik P, Whitley J (1981) Use of the computed tomographic whole body scanner to stage and follow patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. Invest Radiol 16:479–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Armando Rossi
    • 1
  • Giorgio Rossi
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Radiological SciencesUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  2. 2.Local Health Unit (ASL)Hospital of FidenzaFidenza (Pr)Italy

Personalised recommendations