Virtual Cystoscopy

  • T. R. Fleiter
  • E. M. Merkle
  • C. Wisianowsky
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Two out of three malignancies of the urinary tract are located in the bladder, and carcinoma of the urinary bladder makes up nearly 7% of all malignant tumors in men and about 4% in women. It is estimated that, in the United States, about 14,600 women and 38,300 men developed a malignant process involving the bladder in 1996 and that about 3900 women and 7800 men would die as a result of their malignancies (Parker et al. 1996). The incidence of all malignancies of the bladder is still increasing (Lamm et al. 1996). Most of the tumors (80–90%) are macroscopically papillary and only 10–20% are solid. Multifocal development of tumors has been seen in more than 25% of cases. The overwhelming majority (>90%) of the tumors are urothelial carcinomas. As cystoscopy still plays the key role in the diagnosis of malignancies of the urinary bladder, virtual endoscopy or cystoscopy could be the less invasive alternative in the diagnostic workup.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Curley P, Ralph D, Scott DJA (1995) Critical limb ischemia — a complication of cystoscopy. Br J Urol 76: 515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dachman AH, Chen SYJ, Lieberman J, Newmark GM, Hoffmann K, McGill J (1996) Virtual colonoscopy of simulated lesions of pig colon. AJR Am J Roentgenol 166: 83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dondalski M, White EM, Ghahremani GG, and Patel SK (1993) Carcinoma arising in urinary bladder diverticula: imaging findings in six patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 161(4):817–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fenlon HM, Bell TV, Ahari HK, Hussain S (1997) Virtual endoscopy: early clinical experience. Radiology 205:272–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Feretti G, Knoplioch J, Coulomb M (1995) Virtual bronchoscopy: multiplanar reformation and 3D shaded surface displays of the tracheobrochial tree. Radiology 197(P): 201Google Scholar
  6. Fleiter T, Merkle EM, Aschoff AJ, Lang G, Stein M, Gorich J, Liewald F, Rilinger N, Sokiranski R (1997) Comparison of real-time virtual and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients with bronchial carcinoma: opportunities and limitations. AJR Am J Roentgenol 169:1591–1595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hara AK, Johnson CD, Reed JE et al. (1996) Feasibility of Colorectal Polyp Detection by 2D and 3D Helical CT (CT Colography). AJR Am J Roentgenol 166: 84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lamm DL, Torti FM (1996) Bladder cancer, 1996. CA Cancer J Clin 46: 93–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Merkle EM, Wunderlich A, Aschoff AJ, Rilinger N, Gorich J, Bachor R, Gottfried HW, Sokiranski R, Fleiter TR, Brambs HJ (1998) Virtual cystoscopy based on helical CT scan datasets: perspectives and limitations. Br J Radiol 71:262–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Olcott EW, Nino Murcia M, Rhee JS (1998) Urinary bladder pseudolesions on contrast-enhanced helical CT: frequency and clinical implications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 171:1349–1354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Parker SL, Tong T, Bolden S, Wingo PA (1996) Cancer statistics, 1996. CA Cancer J Clin 46: 5–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rodenwaldt J, Kopka L, Roedel R, Grabbe E (1996) Dreidimensionale Oberflächendarstellung des Larynx und der Trachea mittels Spiral-CT: virtuelle Endoskopie. Fortschr Röntgenstr 165: 80–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rubin GD, Beaulieu CF, Argiro V et al. (1996) Perspective volume rendering of et and mr images: applications for endoscoping imaging. Radiology 199: 321–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Vining DJ, Liu K, Choplin RH, Haponik EF (1996) Virtual bronchoscopy. Relationships of virtual reality endobronchial simulations to actual bronchoscopic findings. Chest 109: 549–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Vining DJ, Teigen EL, Stelts D, Vanderwerken B, Kopecky KK, Rex D (1995) Virtual colonoscopy: a 60-second colon examination. Radiology 197 (P): 281Google Scholar
  16. Vining DJ, Zagoria RJ, Liu K, Stelts D (1996) CT cystoscopy: an innovation in bladder imaging. Am J Roentgenol 166: 409–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. R. Fleiter
    • 1
  • E. M. Merkle
    • 1
  • C. Wisianowsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic ImagingUniversity Hospital of UlmUlmGermany

Personalised recommendations