Corrective gene therapy requires efficient devices for the delivery of genes and gene sequences into target cells. In addition to viral systems which may represent the gene delivery system(s) of choice for one or another specific indication in the near future, there is a considerable need for alternative systems that can be easily produced and applied, similar to low-molecular substances or proteins. But there is still an urgent need to improve the low gene transfer rates that have not been overcome so far with nonviral gene transfer systems. For in vivo application plasmid DNA has to fulfill several requirements that allow transcription in the nucleus and its translation in the cytoplasm. Some of these requirements are common for both viral and nonviral gene delivery systems, such as binding to the cell surface, penetration of the cell (by fusion and/or by endocytosis), release from the endosome(s), transfer to the nuclear membrane, penetration of the nucleus, expression of the encoded gene of interest via the cell’s specific transcription mechanisms.
KeywordsInfluenza Lysine Interferon Integrin Cytosol
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