Advertisement

Diversity and Ecology of Biological Crusts

  • Burkhard Büdel
Part of the Progress in Botany book series (BOTANY, volume 63)

Abstract

Biological crusts are composed of algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, micro-fungi and lichens, sometimes also mosses. Only in rare cases are all components involved in crust formation, quite often there is only one or two of these groups involved. Biological crusts occur on rock and soil surfaces and on the bark of trees, on leaves, but also on man-made substrates. This review focuses on the two main terrestrial habitats — soil and rock — where biological crusts are predominantly found in semiarid and arid regions or under arid microclimatic conditions in all climatic ecoregions on Earth.

Keywords

Soil Crust Biological Soil Crust Crust Type Cyanobacterial Crust Biological Crust 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anagnostidis K, Economou-Amili A, Roussomoustakaki M (1983) Epilithic and chas-molithic microflora (Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta) from marbles of the Parthenon (Acropolis-Athens, Greece). Nova Hedwigia 38:227–287Google Scholar
  2. Bastos CJP, Albertos B, Bôas SBV (1998) Bryophytes from some Caatinga areas in the state of Bhia (Brazil). Trop Bryol 14:69–75Google Scholar
  3. Bell RA, Sommerfeld MR (1987) Algal biomass and primary production within a temperate zone sandstone. Am J Bot 74:294–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell RA, Athey PV, Sommerfeld MR (1986) Cryptoendolithic algal communities of the Colorado plateau. J Phycol 22:429–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belnap, J (2001) Comparative structure of physical and biological soil crusts. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 177–191Google Scholar
  6. Belnap J, Harper KT, Warren SD (1994) Surface disturbance of cryptiobiotic soil crusts: nitrogenase activity, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll degradation. Arid Soil Res Rehabil 8:1–8Google Scholar
  7. Belnap J, Büdel B, Lange OL (2001) Biological soil crusts: Characteristics and distribution. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 3–300Google Scholar
  8. Beymer RJ, Klopatek JM (1991) Potential contribution of carbon by microphytic crusts in pinyon-juniper woodlands. Arid Soil Res Rehabil 5:187–198Google Scholar
  9. Broady P (1996) Diversity, distribution and dispersal of Antarctic terrestrial algae. Biodiv Conserv 5: 1307–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Büdel B (1999) Ecology and diversity of rock inhabiting cyanobacteria in tropical regions. European J Phycol 34:361–370Google Scholar
  11. Büdel B (2001a) Biological Soil crusts of South America. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 51–55Google Scholar
  12. Büdel B (2001b) Biological soil crusts of European temperate and mediterranean regions. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 75–86Google Scholar
  13. Büdel B (2001c) Biological soil crusts of Asia including the Don and Volga region. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 87–94Google Scholar
  14. Büdel B (2001d) Synopsis: comparative biogeography and ecology of soil crust biota and communities. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 141–152Google Scholar
  15. Büdel B, Lange OL (1991) Water status of green and blue-green phycobionts in lichen thalli after hydration by water vapor uptake: do they become turgid? Bot Acta 104:361–366Google Scholar
  16. Büdel B, Wessels DCJ (1991) Rock inhabiting blue-green algae/cyanobacteria from hot arid regions. Arch Hydrobiol Suppl 92 (Algol Stud 64): 385–398Google Scholar
  17. Büdel B, Lüttge U, Stelzer, R, Huber O, Medina E (1994) Cyanobacteria of rocks and soils in the Orinoco region and in the Guyana highlands, Venezuela. Bot Acta 107:422–431Google Scholar
  18. Büdel B, Becker U, Porembski S, Barthlott W (1997a) Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial lichens from inselbergs of the Ivory Coast, Africa. Bot Acta 110:458–465Google Scholar
  19. Büdel B, Karsten U, Garcia-Pichel F (1997b) Ultraviolet-absorbing scytonemin and my-cosporine-like amino acid derivates in exposed, rock inhabiting cyanobacterial lichens. Oecologia 112:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Büdel B, Becker U, Follmann G, Sterflinger K (2000a) Algae, fungi, and lichens on Inselbergs. In: Porembski S, Barthlott W (eds) Inselbergs — biotic diversity of isolated outcrops in tropical and temperate regions. Ecological studies 146. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 69–90Google Scholar
  21. Büdel B, Schultz M, Lakatos M, Woitke M (2000b) Ökologie lithophytischer Cyanobak-terien und Cyanobakterien-Flechten des Guyana Hochlands und des Orinoco Tieflands (Venezuela). In: Walter H, Breckle S-W, Schweizer B, Arndt U (eds) Ergebnisse weltweiter ökologischer Forschungen. Beiträge des 1. Symposiums der AFW Schimper-Stiftung von H und E Walter, pp 209–217Google Scholar
  22. Cameron RE, Blank GB (1966) Desert algae: soil crusts and diaphanous substrata as algal habitats. JPL Tech Rep Jet Propulsion Lab, California Inst Tech Pasadena N 32–971Google Scholar
  23. Castenholz RW, Garcia-Pichel F (2000) Cyanobacterial responses to UV-radiation. In: Whitton BA, Potts W (eds) The ecology of cyanobacteria. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 591–611Google Scholar
  24. Copley J (2000) Ecology goes underground. Nature 406:452–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Winder (1990) Ecophysiological strategies of drought-tolerant phototrophic microorganisms in dune soils. Academisch Proefschrift, University of Amsterdam, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  26. Diels L (1914) Die Algen-Vegetation der Südtiroler Dolomitriffe. Ein Beitrag zur Ökologie der Lithophyten. Ber Dtsch Bot Gesellschaft 32:502–526Google Scholar
  27. Dor I, Danin A (1996) Cyanobacterial desert crusts in the Dead Sea Valley, Israel. Algol Stud 83:197–206Google Scholar
  28. Eldridge DJ (2001) Biological soil crusts of Australia. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 119–131Google Scholar
  29. Eldridge DJ, Green RSB (1994) Microbiotic soil crusts: a review of their roles in soil and ecological processes in the rangelands of Australia. Aust J Soil Res 32:389–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eldridge DJ, Koen TB (1998) Cover and floristics of microphytic soil crusts in relation to indices of landscape health. Plant Ecol 137:101–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eldridge DJ, Tozer ME (1996) Distribution and floristics of bryophytes in soil crusts in semi-arid and arid eastern Australia. Aust J Bot 44:223–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Evans RD, Johansen JR (1999) Microbiotic crusts and ecosystem processes. Crit Rev Plant Sci 18:183–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Freiberg E (1998a) Influence of microclimate on the occurrence of cyanobacteria in the phyllosphere in a premontane rain forest of Costa Rica. Plant Biol 1:244–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Freiberg E (1998b) Microclimatic parameters influencing nitrogen fixation in the phyllosphere in a Costa Rican premontane rain forest. Oecologia 17:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frey E, Kürschner H (1991) Lebenstrategien von terrestrischen Bryophyten in der Judäischen Wüste. Bot Acta 104:172–182Google Scholar
  36. Friedmann EI (1980) Endolithic microbial life in hot and cold deserts. Origins Life 10:223–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Friedmann EI, Galun M (1974) Desert algae, lichens and fungi.. In: Brown GW (ed) Desert biology, vol II. Academic Press, London, pp 165–212Google Scholar
  38. Friedmann EI, Lipkin Y, Ocampo-Paus R (1967) Desert algae of the Negev (Israel). Phy-cologia 6:185–200Google Scholar
  39. Friedmann EI, Hua M, Ocampo-Friedmann R (1988) Cryptoendolithic lichen and cyano-bacterial communities of the Ross Desert, Antarctica. Polarforschung 58:251–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Galun M, Garty J (2001) Biological soil crusts of the Middle East. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 95–106Google Scholar
  41. Garcia-Pichel F, Belnap J (1996) Microenvironments and microscale productivity of cyanobacterial desert crusts. J Phycol 32: 774–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Garty J (1989) Influence of epilithic microorganisms on the surface temperature of building walls. Can J Bot 68:1349–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Golubic S (1967a) Algenvegetation der Felsen. Eine ökologische Algenstudie im dinarischen Karstgebiet. In: Elster HJ, Ohle W (eds) Die Binnengewässer, vol 23:1–183Google Scholar
  44. Golubic S (1967b) Die Algenvegetation an Sandsteinfelsen Ost-Venezuelas (Cumaná). Int Rev Hydrobiol 52:693–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Golubic S, Friedmann EI, Schneider J (1981) The lithobiontic ecological niche, with special reference to microorganisms. J Sediment Petrol 51:475–478Google Scholar
  46. Green TGA, Broady P (2001) Biological soil crusts of Antarctica. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 142–139Google Scholar
  47. Green TGA, Meyer A, Büdel B, Zellner H, Lange OL (1995) Diel patterns of CO2 exchange for six lichens from a temperate rain forest in New Zealand. Symbiosis 18:251–273Google Scholar
  48. Hahn A, Kusserow H (1998) Spatial and temporal distribution of algae in soil crusts in the Sahel of W Africa: preliminary results. Wildenowia 28:227–238Google Scholar
  49. Hale ME (1987) Epilithic lichens in the beacon sandstone formation, Victorialand, Antarctica. Lichenologist 19:269–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hambler DJ (1964) The vegetation of granitic outcrops in western Nigeria. J Ecol 52:573–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hansen ES (2001) Lichen-rich soil crusts of Arctic Greenland. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 57–65Google Scholar
  52. Isichei AO (1980) Nitrogen fixation by blue-green algal soil crusts in Nigerian savanna In: Rosswall T (ed) Nitrogen cycling in West Africa ecosystems. Royal Swedish Acad Sci Stockholm, pp 191–198Google Scholar
  53. Jaag O (1945) Untersuchungen über die Vegetation und Biologie der Algen des nackten Gesteins in den Alpen, im Jura und im schweizerischen Mittelland. Beitr Kryptoga-menflora Schweiz 9:1–560Google Scholar
  54. Joubert JJ, Steyn PL, Britz TJ, Wessles DCJ (1982) Chemical composition of some lichen species occurring in the Namib Desert, South West Africa. Dinteria 16:33–43Google Scholar
  55. Keeling RF, Piper SC, Heimann M (1996) Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentration. Nature 381:218–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kidron G (1995) The impact of microbial crust upon rainfall-runoff-sediment yield relationships on longitudinal dune slopes, Nizzana, western Negev desert, Israel. PhD Thesis, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (English summary)Google Scholar
  57. Komâromy ZP (1976) Soil algal growth types as edaphic adaptations in Hungarian forest and grass steppe ecosystems. Acta Bot Acad Sci Hung 22:373–379Google Scholar
  58. Krumbein WE, Jens K (1981) Biogenic rock varnishes of the Negev Desert (Israel), an ecological study of iron and manganese transformation by cyanobacteria and fungi. Oecologia 50:25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lange OL (2001) Photosynthesis of soil-crust biota as dependent on environmental factors. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 217–240Google Scholar
  60. Lange OL, Kidron GJ, Büdel B, Meyer A, Kilian E, Abeliovich A (1992) Taxonomic composition and photosynthetic characteristics of the ‘biological soil crusts’ covering sand dunes in the western Negev Desert. Funct Ecol 6:519–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lange OL, Meyer A, Büdel B (1994a) Net-photosynthesis of a desiccated cyanobacterium without liquid water in high air humidity alone. Experiments with Microcoelus sociatus isolated from a desert soil crust. Funct Ecol 8:52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lange OL, Meyer A, Zellner H, Heber U (1994b) Photosynthesis and water relations of lichen soil crusts: field measurements in the coastal fog zone of the Namib Desert. Funct Ecol 8:253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lange OL, Belnap J, Reichenberger H, Meyer A (1997) Photosynthesis of green algal soil crust lichens from arid lands in southern Utah, USA: role of water content on light and temperature responses of CO2 exchange. Flora 192:1–15Google Scholar
  64. Lange OL, Belnap J, Reichenberger H (1998) Photosynthesis of the cyanobacterial soil-crust lichen Collema tenax from arid lands in southern Utah, USA: role of water content on light and temperature responses of CO2 exchange. Funct Ecol 12:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lange OL, Kidron GJ, Büdel B, Meyer A, Kilian E, Abeliovich A (1992) Taxonomic composition and photosynthetic characteristics of the ‘biological soil crusts’ covering sand dunes in the western Negev Desert. Funct Ecol 6:519–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Larcher W (1994) Ökophysiologie der Pflanzen. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  67. Lücking R (1992) Zur Verbreitungsökologie foliikoler Flechten in Costa Rica, Zentralamerika. Nova Hedwigia 54:309–353Google Scholar
  68. Lücking R, Becker U, Follmann G (1998) Foliikole Flechten aus dem Tai-Nationalpark, Elfenbeinküste (Tropisches Afrika). II. Ökologie und Biogeografie. Herzogia 13:207–228Google Scholar
  69. Lüttge U (1997) Cyanobacterial Tintenstrich communities and their ecology. Naturwissenschaften 84:526–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Malam Issa O (1998) Role of microbiotic soil crusts in two sahelian ecosystems (fallow lands and tiger bush) of Niger. Micromorphology, physical and biogeochemical properties. Diss, CNRS-Université d’OrleansGoogle Scholar
  71. Malam Issa O, Trichet J, Défarge C, Couté A, Valentin C (1999) Morphology and micro-structure of microbiotic soil crusts on a tiger bush sequence (Niger, Sahel). Catena 37:175–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Miszalski Z, Büdel B, Lüttge U (1995) Sensitivity of terrestrial cyanobacteria to light and sulphite stress. Polish J Environ Stud 4:55–59Google Scholar
  73. Moore PD (1998) Life in the upper crust. Nature 393:419–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Novichkova-Ivanova LN (1980) Soil algae of the phytocoenoses of the Saharan-Gobi desert region. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian)Google Scholar
  75. Paus SM (1997) Die Erdflechtenvegetation Nordwestdeutschlands und einiger Randgebiete. Vegetationsökologische Untersuchungen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Chemismus ausgewählter Arten. Biblio Lichenol 66:1–222Google Scholar
  76. Prasse R (1999) Experimentelle Untersuchungen an Gefässpflanzenpopulationen auf verschiedenen Geländeoberflächen in einem Sandwüstengebiet. Universitätsverlag Rasch, OsnabrückGoogle Scholar
  77. Reynaud PA, Lumpkin TA (1988) Mikroalgae of the Lanzhou (China) cryptogamic crust. Arid Soil Res Rehab 2:145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rosentreter R, Belnap J (2001) Biological soil crusts of North America. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 31–50Google Scholar
  79. Rummrich U, Rummrich M, Lange-Bertalot H (1989) Diatomeen als “Fensteralgen” in der Namib-Wüste und anderen ariden Gebieten von SWA/Namibia. Dinteria 20:23–29Google Scholar
  80. San Jose JJ, Bravo CR (1991) CO2 exchange in soil algal crusts occurring in the trachypo-gon savannas of the Orinoco Llanos, Venezuela. Plant Soil 135:233–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sarthou C, Thérézien Y, Couté A (1995) Cyanophycées de l’inselberg des Nourages (Guyane francaise). Nova Hedwigia 61:85–109Google Scholar
  82. Schlesinger WH (1997) Biogeochemistry, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  83. Stal LJ (2000) Cyanobacterial mats and stromatolites. In: Whitton BA, Potts W (eds) The ecology of cyanobacteria. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 61–120Google Scholar
  84. Türk R, Gärtner G (2001) Biological soil crusts of the subalpine, alpine and nival areas in the Alps. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 67–73Google Scholar
  85. Ullmann I, Biidel B (2001a) Biological soil crusts of Africa. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 107–118Google Scholar
  86. Ullmann I, Biidel B (2001b) Ecological determinants of species composition of biological soil crusts on a landscape scale. In: Lange OL, Belnap J (eds) Biological soil crusts. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 203–213Google Scholar
  87. Vincent WF (2000) Cyanobacterial dominance in the polar regions. In: Whitton BA, Potts W (eds) The ecology of cyanobacteria. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 321–340Google Scholar
  88. Vogel S (1955) Niedere “Fensterpflanzen”in der südafrikanischen Wüste. Eine ökologische Schilderung. Beitr Biol Pflanz 31:45–135Google Scholar
  89. Watanabe Y, Martini JEJ, Ohmoto H (2000) Geochemical evidence for terrestrial ecosystems 2.6 billion years ago. Nature 408: 574–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Weber B, Wessels DCJ, Büdel B (1996) Biology and ecology of cryptoendolithic cyanobacteria of a sandstone plateau in North-Transvaal, South Africa. Algol Stud 83: 565–579Google Scholar
  91. Weber HM (1997) Ein Biofilm auf freiem Fels: Cyanobakterien der Inselberge Brasiliens. Diploma Thesis, Universities of Bonn and RostockGoogle Scholar
  92. Welwitsch F (1868) The Pedras Negras of Pungo Andongo in Angola. J Travel Nat Hist 1:22–36Google Scholar
  93. Wessels DCJ, Büdel B (1989) A rockpool lichen community in Northern Transvaal, South Africa: composition and distribution patterns. Lichenologist 21:259–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wessels DCJ, Büdel B (1995) Epilithic and cryptoendolithic cyanobacteria of Clarens sandstone cliffs in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park, South Africa. Bot Acta 108:220–226Google Scholar
  95. Wessels DCJ, Wessels LA, Holzapfel WH (1979) Preliminary report on lichen-feeding Coleoptera occurring on Teloschistes capensis in the Namib desert, South West Africa. Bryologist 82:270–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Whitton BA, Potts W (eds) (2000) The ecology of cyanobacteria, Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  97. Wynn-Williams DD (2000) Cyanobacteria in deserts — life at the limit? In: Whitton BA, Potts W (eds) The ecology of cyanobacteria. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 341–366Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burkhard Büdel
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Botanik, FB BiologieUniversität KaiserslauternKaiserslauternGermany

Personalised recommendations