Cerebrovascular Ultrasonography

  • Stephen Meairs
  • Michael Hennerici


Over three decades ago, continuous-wave (CW) Doppler was introduced as the first ultrasonographic method for evaluation of cerebrovascular disease. Since then the continuous development of new noninvasive ultrasound techniques has resulted in a considerable number of clinical applications for assessment of both extracranial and intracranial arterial diseases. Historical milestones in cerebrovascular ultrasonography include B-mode imaging of blood vessels in a two-dimensional gray-scale display, transcranial pulsed wave (PW) Doppler systems for hemodynamic evaluation of intracranial blood vessels, duplex systems combining B-mode and pulsed wave (PW) Doppler for simultaneous tissue imaging and registration of Doppler spectrums, and color-coded Doppler imaging for real-time visualization of blood flow. More recent advances in cerebrovascular ultrasound encompass power Doppler imaging, transcranial monitoring of microembolic signals, three- and four-dimensional ultrasonography, real-time compound imaging, and contrast agent harmonic perfusion imaging.


Carotid Artery Vertebral Artery Carotid Stenosis Carotid Plaque Carotid Artery Stenosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Meairs
  • Michael Hennerici

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