Advertisement

Cerebrovascular Ultrasonography

  • Stephen Meairs
  • Michael Hennerici

Abstract

Over three decades ago, continuous-wave (CW) Doppler was introduced as the first ultrasonographic method for evaluation of cerebrovascular disease. Since then the continuous development of new noninvasive ultrasound techniques has resulted in a considerable number of clinical applications for assessment of both extracranial and intracranial arterial diseases. Historical milestones in cerebrovascular ultrasonography include B-mode imaging of blood vessels in a two-dimensional gray-scale display, transcranial pulsed wave (PW) Doppler systems for hemodynamic evaluation of intracranial blood vessels, duplex systems combining B-mode and pulsed wave (PW) Doppler for simultaneous tissue imaging and registration of Doppler spectrums, and color-coded Doppler imaging for real-time visualization of blood flow. More recent advances in cerebrovascular ultrasound encompass power Doppler imaging, transcranial monitoring of microembolic signals, three- and four-dimensional ultrasonography, real-time compound imaging, and contrast agent harmonic perfusion imaging.

Keywords

Carotid Artery Vertebral Artery Carotid Stenosis Carotid Plaque Carotid Artery Stenosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    International Workshop on Cerebral Embolism (1995) Cerebral embolism. Compilation of papers from the International Workshop, Hennerici M (ed), Gütersloh, Germany, 14–15 Jan 1994. Cere-brovasc Dis 5:66–158Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aaslid R, Markwalder TM, Nornes H (1982) Noninvasive transcranial Doppler ultrasound recording of flow velocity in basal arteries. J Neurosurg 57:769–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    AbuRahma AF, Kyer PD, Robinson PA, Hannay RS (1998) The correlation of ultrasonic carotid plaque morphology and carotid plaque hemorrhage: clinical implications. Surgery 124:721–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ackerstaff RG, Hoeneveld H, Slowikowski JM, Moll FL, Eikelboom BC, Ludwig JW (1984) Ultrasonic duplex scanning in atherosclerotic disease of the innominate, subclavian and vertebral arteries: a comparative study with angiography. Ultrasound Med Biol 10: 409–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ackerstaff RG, Keunen RW, van Pelt W, Montauban van Swijndregt AD, Stijnen T (1990) Influence of biological factors on changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in normal ageing: a transcranial Doppler study. Neurol Res 12:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ackerstaff RG, Mess WH, Van Zuilen EV, Van der Tweel I (1997) Reliability in the identification of Doppler embolic transient signals: a statistical problem? Stroke 28:876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aldoori MI, Baird R (1987) Duplex scanning and plaque histology in cerebral ischaemia. Eur J Vasc Surg 1:159–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alexandrov AV, Bladin CF, Magissano R, Norris JW (1993) Measuring carotid stenosis. Stroke 24:1292–1296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arnold JA, Modaresi KB, Thomas N, Taylor PR, Padayachee TS (1999) Carotid plaque characterization by duplex scanning: observer error may undermine current clinical trials. Stroke 30: 61–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arnolds BJ, von Reutern GM (1987) Transcranial Doppler sonography. Examination technique and normal reference values. Ultraschall Med 12:115–123Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Babikian VL, Hyde C, Pochay V, Winter MR (1994) Clinical correlates of high-intensity transient signals detected on transcranial Doppler sonography in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 25:1570–1573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Babikian VL, Wijman CA, Hyde C, Cantelmo NL, Winter MR, Baker E, Pochay V (1997) Cerebral microembolism and early recurrent cerebral or retinal ischemic events. Stroke 28:1314–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barry CD, Allott CP, John NW, Mellor PM, Arundel PA, Thomson DS, Waterton JC (1997) Three-dimensional freehand ultrasound: image reconstruction and volume analysis. Ultrasound Med Biol 23:1209–1224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bartels E (1992) Color-coded Doppler sonography of the vertebral arteries. Comparison with conventional duplex sonography (in German). Ultraschall Med 13:59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bartels E, Flugel KA (1994) Quantitative measurements of blood flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries with transcranial duplex color-flow imaging. A comparative study with conventional transcranial Doppler sonography. J Neuroimaging 4:77–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bartels E, Flügel KA (1996) Evaluation of extracranial vertebral artery dissection with duplex color-flow imaging. Stroke 27:290–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bassiouny HS, Davis H, Massawa N, Gewertz BL, Glagov S, Zarins CK (1989) Critical carotid stenoses: morphologic and chemical similarity between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. J Vasc Surg 9: 202–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baumgartner RW, Arnold M, Gonner F, Staikow I, Herrmann C, Rivoir A, Muri RM (1997) Contrast-enhanced transcranial color-coded duplex sonography in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 28:2473–2478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Becker GM, Winkler J, Hofmann E, Bogdahn U (1990) Imaging of cerebral arterio-venous malformations by transcranial colour-coded real-time sonography. Neuroradiology 32:280–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Belkin M, Mackey WC, Pessin MS, Caplan LR, O’Donnell TF (1993) Common carotid artery occlusion with patent internal and external carotid arteries: diagnosis and surgical management. J Vasc Surg 17:1019–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bendick PJ, Glover JL (1990) Hemodynamic evaluation of vertebral arteries by duplex ultrasound. Surg Clin North Am 70:235–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bendick PJ, Jackson VP (1986) Evaluation of the vertebral arteries with duplex sonography. J Vasc Surg 3:523–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bluth EI, Kay D, Merritt CRB, Sullivan M, Farr G, Mills NL (1986) Sonographic characterization of carotid plaque: detection of hemorrhage. Am J Roentgenol 146:1061–1065Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bluth EI, McVay LVI, Merritt CR, Sullivan MA (1988) The identification of ulcerative plaque with high resolution duplex carotid scanning. J Ultrasound Med 7:73–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bock RW, Lusby RJ (1992) Carotid plaque morphology and interpretation of the echolucent lesion. In: Labs KH, Jäger KA, Fitzgerald DE, Woodcock JP, Neuerburg-Heusler D (eds) Diagnostic vascular imaging. Arnold, London, pp 225–236Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bogdahn U, Becker G, Winkler J, Greiner K, Perez J, Meurers B (1990) Transcranial color-coded real-time sonography in adults. Stroke 21:1680–1688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bots ML, Hoes AW, Koudstaal PJ, Hofman A, Grobbee DE (1997) Common carotid intima-media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study. Circulation 96:1432–1437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brass LM, Pavlakis SG, DeVivo D, Piomelli S, Mohr JP (1988) Transcranial Doppler measurements of the middle cerebral artery. Effect of hematocrit. Stroke 19:1466–1469Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bunegin L, Wahl D, Albin MS (1994) Detection and volume estimation of embolic air in the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler sonography. Stroke 25:593–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Büdingen HJ, Staudacher T (1987) Die Identifizierung der Arteria basilaris mit der transkraniellen Dopplersonographie. Ultraschall 8:95–101Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Büdingen HJ, von Reutern GM (1994) Ultraschalldiagnostik der hirnversorgenden Arterien. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Caplan LR, Zarins CK, Hemmatti M (1985) Spontaneous dissection of the extracranial vertebral arteries. Stroke 16:1030–1038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chan KH, Dearden NM, Miller JD (1993) Transcranial Doppler-sonography in severe head injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl Wien 59:81–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chang PH, Shung KK, Levene HB (1996) Quantitative measurements of second harmonic Doppler using ultrasound contrast agents. Ultrasound Med Biol 22:1205–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cher LM, Chambers BR, Smidt V (1992) Comparison of transcranial Doppler with DSA in vertebrobasilar ischaemia. Clin Exp Neurol 29:143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Comerota AJ, Cranley A, Cook S (1981) Real-time B-mode imaging in diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease. Surgery 89:718–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Comerota AJ, Katz ML, White JV, Grosh JD (1990) The preoperative diagnosis of the ulcerated carotid atheroma. J Vasc Surg 11:505–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Consensus Committee of the Ninth International Cerebral Hemodynamics Symposium (1995) Basic identification criteria of Doppler microembolia signals. Stroke 26:1123Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Crouse JR (1997) Sources of arterial wall thickness measurement variability. In: Touboul PJ (ed) Intima media thickness and atherosclerosis: predicting the risk? Parthenon, New York, pp 59–68Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Crouse JR, Harpold GH, Kahl FR, Toole JF, McKinney WM (1986) Evaluation of a scoring system for extracranial carotid atherosclerosis extent with B-mode ultrasound. Stroke 17:270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Daffertshofer M, Ries S, Schminke U, Hennerici M (1996) High-intensity transient signals in patients with cerebral ischemia. Stroke 27:1844–1849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dashefsky SM, Cooperberg PL, Harrison PB, Reid JD, Araki DN (1991) Total occlusion of the common carotid artery with patent internal carotid artery. Identification with color flow Doppler imaging. J Ultrasound Med 10:417–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Davis PC, Nilsen B, Braun IF, Hoffmann JCJ (1986) A prospective comparison of duplex sonography vs angiography of the vertebral arteries. Am J Neuroradiol 7:1059–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    De Bray JM, Glatt B (1995) Quantification of atheromatous stenosis in the extracranial internal carotid artery. Cerebrovasc Dis 5: 414–426Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    De Bray JM, Missoum A, Dubas F, Joseph PA, Lhoste P, Emile J, Saumet JL (1994) Doppler transcranial ultrasonography in carotid and vertebral dissections: 36 cases involving angiography (in French). J Mal Vasc 19:35–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    De Salles AA, Manchola I (1994) CO2 reactivity in arteriovenous malformations of the brain: a transcranial Doppler ultrasound study. J Neurosurg 80:624–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Delcker A, Diener HC (1992) Die verschiedenen Ultraschallmethoden zur Untersuchung der Arteria vertebralis — eine vergleichende Wertung. Ultraschall Med 13:213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Delcker A, Diener HC (1994) Quantification of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries by three-dimensional ultrasound. Br J Radiol 67:672–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Delcker A, Turowski B (1997) Diagnostic value of three-dimensional transcranial contrast duplex sonography. J Neuroimaging 7: 139–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Deng J, Gardener JE, Rodeck CH, Lees WR (1996) Fetal echocardiography in three and four dimensions. Ultrasound Med Biol 22: 979–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Detmer PR, Bashein G, Hodges T, Beach KW, Filer EP, Burns DH, Strandness DEJ (1994) 3D ultrasonic image feature localization based on magnetic scanhead tracking: in vitro calibration and validation. Ultrasound Med Biol 20:923–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Deverson S, Evans DH, Bouch DC (2000) The effects of temporal bone on transcranial Doppler ultrasound beam shape. Ultrasound Med Biol 26:239–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Diehl RR, Henkes H, Nahser HC, Kuhne D, Berlit P (1994) Blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity in patients with arteriovenous malformations. A transcranial Doppler study. Stroke 25: 1574–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Diehl RR, Sliwka U, Rautenberg W, Schwartz A (1993) Evidence for embolization from a posterior cerebral artery thrombus by transcranial Doppler monitoring. Stroke 24:606–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Droste DW, Karl M, Bohle RM, Kaps M (1997) Comparison of ultrasonic and histopathological features of carotid artery stenosis. Neurol Res 19:380–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dwyer JH, Sun P, Kwong-Fu H, Dwyer KM, Selzer RH (1998) Automated intima-media thickness: the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. Ultrasound Med Biol 24:981–987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Eicke BM, Tegeler CH, Dalley G, Myers LG (1994) Angle correction in transcranial Doppler sonography. J Neuroimaging 4:29–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Eicke BM, von Lorentz J, Paulus W (1995) Embolus detection in different degrees of carotid disease. Neurol Res 17:181–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Eiho S, Kuwahara M, Asada N (1987) Left ventricular image processing. Med Prog Technol 12:101–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    El Atrozy T, Nicolaides A, Tegos T, Griffin M (1998) The objective characterisation of ultrasonic carotid plaque features. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 16:223–230Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Eliasziw M, Strifler JY, Fox AJ, Hachinski VC, Ferguson GG, Barnett HJ (1994) Significance of plaque ulceration in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. Stroke 25:304–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Erickson SJ, Mewissen MW, Foley WD, Lawson TL, Middleton WD, Quiroz FA, Macrander SJ, Lipchik EO (1989) Stenosis of the internal carotid artery: assessment using color Doppler imaging compared with angiography. Am J Roentgenol 152:1299–1305Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    a. European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group (1991) MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial: interim results for symptomatic patients with severe (70–99%) or with mild (0–29%) carotid stenosis. Lancet 337(8752):1235–1243Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    Fischer CM, Ojemann RJ (1986) A clinico-pathologic study of carotid endarterectomy plaques. Rev Neurol 142:573Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Fisher CM, Gore I, Okabe N, White PD (1965) Atherosclerosis of the carotid and vertebral arteries — extracranial and intracranial. Neuropathol Exp Neurol 24:455–476Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    Fisher M, Blumenfeld AM, Smith TW (1987) The importance of carotid artery plaque disruption and hemorrhage. Arch Neurol 44:1086–1089PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Folsom AR, Eckfeldt JH, Weitzman S, Ma J, Chambless LE, Barnes RW, Cram KB, Hutchinson RG (1994) Relation of carotid artery wall thickness to diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose and insulin, body size, and physical activity. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Investigators. Stroke 25:66–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Forsberg F, Goldberg BB, Liu JB, Merton DA, Rawool NM, Shi WT (1999) Tissue-specific US contrast agent for evaluation of hepatic and splenic parenchyma. Radiology 210:125–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Forteza AM, Babikian VL, Hyde C, Winter M, Pochay V (1996) Effect of time and cerebrovascular symptoms on the prevalence of microembolic signals in patients with cervical carotid stenosis. Stroke 27:687–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Franceschi D, Bondi JA, Rubin JR (1992) A new approach for three-dimensional reconstruction of arterial ultrasonography. J Vasc Surg 15:800–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Fujii K, Heistad D, Faraci FM (1991) Flow mediated dilation of the basilar artery in vivo. Circ Res 69:697–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Furberg CD, Borhani NO, Byington RP, Gibbons ME, Sowers JR (1993) Calcium antagonists and atherosclerosis. The Multicenter Isradipine/Diuretic Atherosclerosis Study. Am J Hypertens 6:24S–29SGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Furst G, Saleh A, Wenserski F, Malms J, Cohnen M, Aulich A, Neu-mann-Haefelin T, Schroeter M, Steinmetz H, Sitzer M (1999) Reliability and validity of noninvasive imaging of internal carotid artery pseudo-occlusion. Stroke 30:1444–1449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Gaunt ME, Martin PJ, Smith JL, Rimmer T, Cherryman G, Ratliff DA, Bell PR, Naylor AR (1994) Clinical relevance of intraoperative embolization detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography during carotid endarterectomy: a prospective study of 100 patients. Br J Surg 81:1435–1439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Geiser EA, Christie LGJ, Conetta DA, Conti CR, Gossman GS (1982) A mechanical arm for spatial registration of two-dimensional echocardiographic sections. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 8:89–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Georgiadis D, Baumgartner RW, Karatschai R, Lindner A, Zerkowski HR (1998) Further evidence of gaseous embolic material in patients with artificial heart valves. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 115:808–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Georgiadis D, Grosset DG, Quin RO, Nichol JA, Bone I, Lees KR (1994) Detection of intracranial emboli in patients with carotid disease. Eur J Vasc Surg 8:309–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Georgiadis D, Kaps M, Siebler M, Hill M, Konig M, Berg J, Kahl M, Zunker P, Diehl B, Ringelstein EB (1995) Variability of Doppler microembolic signal counts in patients with prosthetic cardiac valves. Stroke 26:439–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Georgiadis D, Mallinson A, Grosset DG, Lees KR (1994) Coagulation activity and emboli counts in patients with prosthetic cardiac valves. Stroke 25:1211–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Georgiadis D, Wenzel A, Zerkowski HR, Zierz S, Lindner A (1998) Influence of transducer frequency on Doppler microemboli signals in an in vivo model. Neurol Res 20:198–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Gerriets T, Seidel G, Fiss I, Modrau B, Kaps M (1999) Contrast-enhanced transcranial color-coded duplex sonography: efficiency and validity. Neurology 52:1133–1137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Glagov S, Bassiouny HS, Giddens DP, Zarins CK (1995) Intimai thickening: morphogenesis, functional significance and detection. J Vasc Invest 1:1–14Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    Goertler M, Baeumer M, Kross R, Blaser T, Lutze G, Jost S, Wallesch CW (1999) Rapid decline of cerebral microemboli of arterial origin after intravenous acetylsalicylic acid. Stroke 30:66–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Goes E, Janssens W, Maillet B, Freson M, Steyaert L, Osteaux M (1990) Tissue characterization of atheromatous plaques: correlation between ultrasound image and histological findings. J Clin Ultrasound 18:611–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Goldberg BB, Merton DA, Liu JB, Forsberg F (1998) Evaluation of bleeding sites with a tissue-specific sonographic contrast agent. J Ultrasound Med 17:609–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Golledge J, Cuming R, Ellis M, Davies AH, Greenhalgh RM (1997) Carotid plaque characteristics and presenting symptom. Br J Surg 84:1697–1701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Gomez CR, Brass LM, Tegeler CH, Babikian V, Sloan MA, Feldmann E, Wechsler L (1993) The transcranial Doppler standardization project. J Neuroimaging 3:190–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Greselle JF, Zenteno M, Kien P, Castel JP, Caille JM (1987) Spontaneous dissection of the vertebro-basilar system. A study of 18 cases (15 patients). J Neuroradiol 14:115–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Griewing B, Morgenstern C, Driesner F, Kallwellis G, Walker ML, Kessler C (1996) Cerebrovascular disease assessed by color-flow and power Doppler ultrasonography: comparison with digital subtraction angiography in internal carotid artery stenosis. Stroke 27:95–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Griewing B, Schminke U, Morgenstern C, Walker ML, Kessler C (1997) Three-dimensional ultrasound angiography (power mode) for the quantification of carotid artery atherosclerosis. J Neuroimaging 7:40–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Gronholdt ML, Nordestgaard BG, Wiebe BM, Wilhjelm JE, Sillesen H (1998) Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content. Circulation 97:34–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Gronholdt ML, Wiebe BM, Laursen H, Nielsen TG, Schroeder TV, Sillesen H (1997) Lipid-rich carotid artery plaques appear echolu-cent on ultrasound B-mode images and may be associated with in-traplaque haemorrhage. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 14:439–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    Grosset DG, Cowburn P, Georgiadis D, Dargie HJ, Faichney A, Lee KR (1994) Ultrasound detection of cerebral emboli in patients with prosthetic heart valves. J Heart Valve Dis 3:128–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Grosset DG, Georgiadis D, Abdullah I, Bone I, Lees KR (1994) Doppler emboli signals vary according to stroke subtype. Stroke 25:382–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Grosset DG, Georgiadis D, Kelman AW, Lees KR (1993) Quantification of ultrasound emboli signals in patients with cardiac and carotid disease. Stroke 24:1922–1924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Haggag KJ, Russell D, Brucher R, Dahl A, Jakobsen J, Bakke S, Muan B (1999) Contrast enhanced pulssed Doppler and colour-coded duplex studies on the cranial vasculature. Eur J Neurol 6:443–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Hallam MJ, Reid JM, Cooperberg PL (1989) Color-flow Doppler and conventional duplex scanning of the carotid bifurcation: prospective, double-blind, correlative study. Am J Roentgenol 152:1101–1105Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    Hamper UM, Trapanotto V, Sheth S, DeJong MR, Caskey CI (1994) Three-dimensional US: preliminary clinical experience. Radiology 191:397–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Harders A (1986) Neurosurgical applications of transcranial Doppler sonography. Springer, Vienna New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Harders A, Bien S, Eggert HR, Laborde G, Merland JJ, Rufenacht D (1988) Haemodynamic changes in arteriovenous malformations induced by superselective embolization: transcranial Doppler evaluation. Neurol Res 10:239–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Hart RG (1988) Vertebral artery dissection. Neurology 38:987–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Hartmann A, Mohr JP, Thompson JL, Ramos O, Mast H (1999) Interrater reliability of plaque morphology classification in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. Acta Neurol Scand 99:61–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Hassler W (1986) Hemodynamic aspects of cerebral angiomas. Springer, Vienna New YorkGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Hatsukami TS, Ferguson MS, Beach KW, Gordon D, Detmer PR, Burns DH, Alpers C, Strandness DE Jr (1997) Carotid plaque morphology and clinical events. Stroke 28:95–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Hell B, Walter FA, Schreiber S, Blase H, Bielke G, Meindl S, Stein G (1993) Three-dimensional ultrasonography in maxillofacial surgery. A new diagnostic tool. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 22:173–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Hennerici M (1994) High intensity transcranial signals (HITS): a questionable “jackpot” for the prediction of stroke risk. J Heart Valve Dis 3:124–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Hennerici M, Meairs S (2000) Imaging arterial wall disease. Cere-brovasc Dis Suppl 5 [Suppl]:9–20Google Scholar
  108. 107.
    Hennerici M, Neuerburg-Heusler D (1998) Vascular diagnosis with ultrasound. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Hennerici M, Rautenberg W, Schwartz A (1987) Transcranial Doppler ultrasound for the assessment of intracranial arterial flow velocity, part 2. Evaluation of intracranial arterial disease. Surg Neurol 27:523–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Hennerici M, Rautenberg W, Sitzer G, Schwartz A (1987) Transcranial Doppler ultrasound for the assessment of intracranial arterial flow velocity, part 1. Examination technique and normal values. Surg Neurol 27:439–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Hennerici M, Reifschneider G, Trockel U, Aulich A (1984) Detection of early atherosclerotic lesions by duplex scanning of the carotid artery. J Clin Ultrasound 12:455–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Hennerici M, Steinke W (1991) Carotid plaque developments: aspects of hemodynamic and vessel wall-platelet interaction. Cere-brovasc Dis 1:142–148Google Scholar
  113. 112.
    Hennerici M, Steinke W, Rautenberg W (1989) High-resistance Doppler flow pattern in extracranial carotid dissection. Arch Neurol 46:670–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Hodges TC, Detmer PR, Burns DH, Beach KW, Strandness DE J (1994) Ultrasonic three-dimensional reconstruction: in vitro and in vivo volume and area measurement. Ultrasound Med Biol 20:719–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Hoffmann M, Sacco RL, Chan S, Mohr JP (1993) Noninvasive detection of vertebral artery dissection. Stroke 24:815–819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Huber P, Handa J (1967) Effect of contrast material, hypercapnea, hyperventilation, hypotonic glucose and papaverine on the diameter of cerebral arteries. Invest Radiol 2:17–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Imparato AM, Riles TS, Gostein F (1979) The carotid bifurcation plaque: pathologic findings associated with cerebral ischemia. Stroke 10:238–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Imparato AM, Riles TS, Mintzer R, Baumann FG (1983) The importance of hemorrhage in the relationship between gross morphologic characteristics and cerebral symptoms in 376 carotid artery plaques. Ann Surg 197:195–203PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Jansen C, Ramos LM, van Heesewijk JP, Moll FL, van Gijn J, Acker-staff RG (1994) Impact of microembolism and hemodynamic changes in the brain during carotid endarterectomy. Stroke 25:992–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Joakimsen O, Bonaa KH, Stensland-Bugge E (1997) Reproducibility of ultrasound assessment of carotid plaque occurrence, thickness, and morphology. The Tromso Study. Stroke 28:2201–2207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    Josien E (1992) Extracranial vertebral artery dissection: nine cases. J Neurol 239:327–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    Keunen RW, Stam CJ, Tavy DL, Mess WH, Titulaer BM, Ackerstaff RG (1998) Preliminary report of detecting microembolic signals in transcranial Doppler time series with nonlinear forecasting. Stroke 29: 1638–1643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    King DL, King DL J, Shao MY (1990) Three-dimensional spatial registration and interactive display of position and orientation of real-time ultrasound images. J Ultrasound Med 9:525–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Klotzsch C, Bozzato A, Lammers G, Mull M, Lennartz B, Noth J (1999) Three-dimensional transcranial color-coded sonography of cerebral aneurysms. Stroke 30:90Google Scholar
  125. 124.
    Koennecke HC, Mast H, Trocio SHJ, Sacco RL, Ma W, Mohr JP, Thompson JL (1998) Frequency and determinants of microembolic signals on transcranial Doppler in unselected patients with acute carotid territory ischemia. A prospective study. Cerebrovasc Dis 8:107–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Krishnan S, O’Donnell M (1996) Transmit aperture processing for nonlinear contrast agent imaging. Ultrason Imaging 18:77–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 126.
    Langsfeld M, Gray Weale AC, Lusby RJ (1989) The role of plaque morphology and diameter reduction in the development of new symptoms in asymptomatic carotid arteries. J Vasc Surg 9: 548–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Leen EJ, Feeley TM, Colgan MP, O’Malley MK, Moore DJ, Hourihane DO, Shanik GD (1990) “Haemorrhagic” carotid plaque does not contain haemorrhage. Eur J Vasc Surg 4:123–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Lennihan L, Kupsky WJ, Mohr JP, Hauser WA, Correli JW, Quest DO (1987) Lack of association between carotid plaque hematoma and ischemic cerebral symptoms. Stroke 18:879–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Leotta DF, Detmer PR, Martin RW (1997) Performance of a miniature magnetic position sensor for three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. Ultrasound Med Biol 23:597–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Levine SR, Welch KM (1989) Common carotid artery occlusion. Neurology 39:178–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Lindegaard KF, Bakke SJ, Aaslid R, Nornes H (1986) Doppler diagnosis of intracranial arterial occlusive disorders. J Neurol Neuro-surg Psychiatry 49:510–518Google Scholar
  133. 132.
    Lindegaard KF, Bakke SJ, Grolimund P, Aaslid R, Huber P, Nornes H (1985) Assessment of intracranial hemodynamics in carotid artery disease by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. J Neurosurg 63:890–898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    LoGerfo FW, Mason GR (1974) Directional Doppler studies of supraorbital artery flow in internal carotid stenosis and occlusion. Surgery 76:723–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Lusby RJ, Ferrell LD, Ehrenfeld WK, Stoney RJ, Wylie EJ (1982) Carotid plaque hemorrhage. Its role in production of cerebral ischemia. Arch Surg 117:1479–1488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Manchola IF, De Salles AA, Foo TK, Ackerman RH, Candia GT, Kjellberg RN (1993) Arteriovenous malformation hemodynamics: a transcranial Doppler study. Neurosurgery 33:556–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Markus H, Bland JM, Rose G, Sitzer M, Siebler M (1996) How good is intercenter agreement in the identification of embolic signals in carotid artery disease? Stroke 27:1249–1252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Markus HS, Ackerstaff R, Babikian V, Bladin C, Droste D, Grosset D, Levi C, Russell D, Siebler M, Tegeler C (1997) Intercenter agreement in reading Doppler embolic signals. A multicenter international study. Stroke 28:1307–1310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    Markus HS, Clifton A, Buckenham T, Brown MM (1994) Carotid angioplasty. Detection of embolic signals during and after the procedure. Stroke 25:2403–2406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 139.
    Markus HS, Droste DW, Brown MM (1994) Detection of asymptomatic cerebral embolic signals with Doppler ultrasound. Lancet 343:1011–1012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Markus HS, Loh A, Israel D, Buckenham T, Clifton A, Brown MM (1993) Microscopic air embolism during cerebral angiography and strategies for avoidance. Lancet 341:784–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Markus HS, Thomson N, Brown MM (1995) Asymptomatic cerebral embolic signals in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. Brain 118:1005–1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 142.
    Markus HS, Thomson ND, Brown MM (1995) Asymptomatic cerebral embolic signals in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. Brain 118:1005–1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 143.
    Maroon JC, Pieroni DW, Campbell RL (1969) Ophthalmosonometry: an ultrasonic method for assessing carotid blood flow. J Neurosurg 30:238–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Mast H, Mohr JP, Thompson JL, Osipov A, Trocio SH, Mayer S, Young WL (1995) Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Diagnostic sensitivity and association of flow velocity with spontaneous hemorrhage and focal neurological deficit. Stroke 26:1024–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 145.
    Mattle H, Grolimund P, Huber P, Sturzenegger M, Zurbrugg HR (1988) Transcranial Doppler sonographic findings in middle cerebral artery disease. Arch Neurol 45:289–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 146.
    Meairs S, Daffertshofer M, Neff W, Eschenfelder C, Hennerici M (2000) Pulse-inversion contrast harmonic imaging: ultrasonographic assessment of cerebral perfusion. Lancet 355:550–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 147.
    Meairs S, Hennerici M (1999) Four-dimensional ultrasonographic characterization of plaque surface motion in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Stroke 30:1807–1813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Meairs S, Steinke W, Mohr JP, Hennerici M (1998) Ultrasound imaging and Doppler sonography. In: Barnett HJM, Mohr JP, Stein BM, Yatsu F, editors. Stroke: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 207–326Google Scholar
  150. 149.
    Meairs S, Timpe L, Beyer J, Hennerici M (2000) Acute aphasia and hemiplegia during karate training. Lancet 356:40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 150.
    Melis-Kisman E, Mol JMF (1970) L’application de l’effet Doppler à l’exploration cérébrovascular — rapport préliminaire. Rev Neur 122:470–472Google Scholar
  152. 151.
    Merritt CR (1987) Doppler color flow imaging. J Clin Ultrasound 15:591–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Middleton WD, Foley WD, Lawson TL (1988) Color-flow Doppler imaging of carotid artery abnormalities. Am J Roentgenol 150: 419–425Google Scholar
  154. 153.
    Middleton WD, Foley WD, Lawson TL (1988) Flow reversal in the normal carotid bifurcation: color Doppler flow imaging analysis. Radiology 167:207–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 154.
    Miller JD, Smith RR, Holaday HR (1992) Carbon dioxide reactivity in the evaluation of cerebral ischemia. Neurosurgery 30:518–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Mintz GS, Pichard AD, Satler LF, Popma JJ, Kent KM, Leon MB (1993) Three-dimensional intravascular ultrasonography: reconstruction of endovascular stents in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Ultrasound 21:609–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 156.
    Mohr JP, Duterte DI, Oliveira VR, Dummy S Sr, Dummy S Jr (1988) Recanalization of acute middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neurology 38:215Google Scholar
  158. 157.
    Mokri B, Houser OW, Sandok BA, Piepgras DG (1988) Spontaneous dissections of the vertebral arteries. Neurology 38:880–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 158.
    Montauban-van SA, Elbers HR, Moll FL, de Letter J, Ackerstaff RG (1998) Ultrasonographic characterization of carotid plaques. Ultrasound Med Biol 24:489–493Google Scholar
  160. 159.
    Moriyasu F, Kono Y, Kamiyama N, Bruns D, Matsumura T, Suginoshita Y, Kobayashi K, Nakamura T, Chiba T (1998) Flash echo imaging of liver tumors using ultrasound contrast agent and intermittent color Doppler scanning. Ultrasound Med 17:S63Google Scholar
  161. 160.
    Mull M, Aulich A, Hennerici M (1990) Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography versus arteriography for assessment of the vertebrobasilar circulation. J Clin Ultrasound 18:539–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 161.
    Mulvagh SL, Foley DA, Aeschbacher BC, Klarich KK, Seward JB (1996) Second harmonic imaging of an intravenously administered echocardiographic contrast agent: visualization of coronary arteries and measurement of coronary blood flow. J Am Coll Cardiol 27:1519–1525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 162.
    Murphy KJ, Bude RO, Dickinson LD, Rubin JM (1997) Use of intravenous contrast material in transcranial sonography. Acad Radiol 4:577–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 163.
    Müller HR (1971) Direktionelle Dopplersonographie der A. frontalis medialis. EEG EMG Z Elektroenzephalogr Elektromyogragr Verwandte Geb 2:816–823Google Scholar
  165. 164.
    Nabavi DG, Droste DW, Kemeny V, Schulte-Altedorneburg G, Weber S, Ringelstein EB (1998) Potential and limitations of echocontrast-enhanced ultrasonography in acute stroke patients: a pilot study. Stroke 29:949–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 165.
    Nabavi DG, Droste DW, Schulte-Altedorneburg G, Kemeny V, Panzica M, Weber S, Ringelstein EB (1999) Diagnostic benefit of echocontrast enhancement for the insufficient transtemporal bone window. J Neuroimaging 9:102–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 166.
    Noritomi T, Sigel B, Swami V, Justin J, Gahtan V, Chen X, Feleppa EJ, Roberts AB, Shirouzu K (1997) Carotid plaque typing by multipleparameter ultrasonic tissue characterization. Ultrasound Med Biol 23:643–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 167.
    O’Donnell TF, Erdoes L, Mackay WC, McCullough J, Shepard A, Heggerick P (1985) Correlation of B-mode ultrasound imaging and arteriography with pathologic findings at carotid endarterectomy. Arch Surg 120:443–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 168.
    O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Manolio TA, Burke GL, Wolfson SKJ (1999) Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 340:14–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 169.
    O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Savage PJ, Borhani NO, Kittner SJ, Tracy R, Gardin JM, Price TR, Furberg CD (1996) Thickening of the carotid wall. A marker for atherosclerosis in the elderly? Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. Stroke 27:224–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 170.
    Otis S, Rush M, Boyajian R (1995) Contrast-enhanced transcranial imaging. Results of an American phase-two study. Stroke 26:203–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 171.
    Padayachee TS, Gosling RG, Bishop CCR, Beurnand K, Browse NL (1986) Monitoring MCA blood velocity during carotid endarterectomy. Br J Surg 73:98–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 172.
    Palombo C, Kozakova M, Morizzo C, Andreuccetti F, Tondini A, Palchetti P, Mirra G, Parenti G, Pandian NG (1998) Ultrafast three-dimensional ultrasound: application to carotid artery imaging. Stroke 29:1631–1637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 173.
    Park AE, McCarthy WJ, Pearce WH, Matsumura JS, Yao JS (1998) Carotid plaque morphology correlates with presenting symptomatology. J Vasc Surg 27:872–878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 174.
    Petty GW, Massaro AR, Tatemichi TK, Mohr JP, Hilal SK, Stein BM, Solomon RA, Duterte DI, Sacco RL (1990) Transcranial Doppler ultrasonographic changes after treatment for arteriovenous malformations. Stroke 21:260–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 175.
    Pignoli P, Tremoli E, Poli A, Oreste P, Paoletti R (1986) Intimai plus medial thickness of the arterial wall: a direct measurement with ultrasound imaging. Circulation 74:1399–1406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 176.
    Poli A, Tremoli E, Colombo A, Sirtori M, Pignoli P, Paoletti R (1988) Ultrasonographic measurement of the common carotid artery wall thickness in hypercholesterolemic patients. A new model for the quantitation and follow-up of preclinical atherosclerosis in living human subjects. Atherosclerosis 70:253–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 177.
    Porter TR, Xie F, Kricsfeld D, Armbruster RW (1996) Improved myocardial contrast with second harmonic transient ultrasound response imaging in humans using intravenous perfluorocarbon-ex-posed sonicated dextrose albumin. J Am Coll Cardiol 27:1497–1501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 178.
    Postert T, Braun B, Pfundtner N, Sprengelmeyer R, Meves S, Przuntek H, Buttner T (1998) Echo contrast-enhanced three-dimensional power Doppler of intracranial arteries. Ultrasound Med Biol 24:953–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 179.
    Postert T, Hoppe P, Federlein J, Helbeck S, Ermert H, Przuntek H, Büttner T, Wilkening W (2000) Contrast agent-specific imaging modes for the ultrasonic assessment of parenchymal cerebral echo contrast enhancement. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 20:1709–1716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 180.
    Postert T, Muhs A, Meves S, Federlein J, Przuntek H, Buttner T (1998) Transient response harmonic imaging: an ultrasound technique related to brain perfusion. Stroke 29:1901–1907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 181.
    Rautenberg W, Hennerici M (1991) Intracranial hemodynamic measurements in patients with severe asymptomatic extracranial carotid disease. Cerebrovasc Dis 1:216–222Google Scholar
  183. 182.
    Rautenberg W, Ries S, Bäzner H, Hennerici M (1993) Emboli detection by TCD monitoring. Can J Neurol Sci 20:138–139Google Scholar
  184. 183.
    Rautenberg W, Schwartz A, Hennerici M (1987) Transkranielle Dopplersonographic während der zerebralen Angiographic In: Widder B (ed) Transkranielle Dopplersonographie bei zerebrovaskulären Erkrankungen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 144–148Google Scholar
  185. 184.
    Rautenberg W, Schwartz A, Mull M, Dummy S Sr, Hennerici M (1990) Noninvasive detection of intracranial stenoses and occlusions. Stroke 21:149Google Scholar
  186. 185.
    Reith W, Pfadenhauer K, Loeprecht H (1990) Significance of transcranial Doppler CO2. Reactivity measurements for the diagnosis of hemodynamically relevant carotid obstructions. Ann Vasc Surg 4:359–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 186.
    Ricotta JJ, Bryan FA, Bond MG, Kurtz A, O’Leary DH, Raines JK (1987) Multicenter validation study of real-time (B-mode) ultrasound, arteriography, and pathologic examination. J Vasc Surg 6:512–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 187.
    Ries F, Eicke M (1987) Auswirkungen der extrakorporalen Zirkulation auf die intrazerebrale Hämodynamik — Erklärung postoperativer neuropsychiatrischer Komplikationen. In: Widder B (ed) Transkranielle Doppler-Sonographie bei zerebrovaskulären Erkrankungen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 100–103Google Scholar
  189. 188.
    Ries F, Honisch C, Lambertz M, Schlief R (1993) A transpulmonary contrast medium enhances the transcranial Doppler signal in humans. Stroke 24:1903–1909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 189.
    Ries F, Tiemann K, Pohl C, Bauer C, Mundo M, Becher H (1998) High-resolution emboli detection and differentiation by characteristic postembolic spectral patterns. Stroke 29:668–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 190.
    Riles TS, Imparato AM, Posner MP, Eikelboom BC (1984) Common carotid occlusion. Ann Surg 199:363–366PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 191.
    Riley WA, Barnes RW, Applegate WB, Dempsey R, Hartwell T, Davis VG, Bond MG, Furberg CD (1992) Reproducibility of noninvasive ultrasonic measurement of carotid atherosclerosis. The Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Plaque Study. Stroke 23:1062–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 192.
    Ringelstein EB, Droste DW, Babikian VL, Evans DH, Grosset DG, Kaps M, Markus HS, Russell D, Siebler M (1998) Consensus on microembolus detection by TCD. International Consensus Group on Microembolus Detection. Stroke 29:725–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 193.
    Ringelstein EB, Droste DW, Babikian VL, Evans DH, Grosset DG, Kaps M, Markus HS, Russell D, Siebler M (1998) Consensus on microembolus detection by TCD. International Consensus Group on Microembolus Detection. Stroke 29:725–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 194.
    Ringelstein EB, Sievers C, Ecker S, Schneider PA, Otis SM (1988) Noninvasive assessment of CO2-induced cerebral vasomotor response in normal individuals and patients with internal carotid artery occlusions. Stroke 19:963–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 195.
    Ringelstein EB, van Eyck S, Mertens I (1992) Evaluation of cerebral vasomotor reactivity by various vasodilating stimuli: comparison of CO2 to acetazolamide. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 12:162–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 196.
    Robinson ML, Sacks D, Perlmutter GS, Marinelli DL (1988) Diagnostic criteria for carotid duplex sonography. Am J Roentgenol 151:1045–1049Google Scholar
  198. 197.
    Rosenfield K, Losordo DW, Ramaswamy K, Pastore JO, Langevin RE, Razvi S, Kosowsky BD, Isner JM (1991) Three-dimensional reconstruction of human coronary and peripheral arteries from images recorded during two-dimensional intravascular ultrasound examination. Circulation 84:1938–1956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 198.
    Roy E, Abraham P, Montresor S, Baudry M, Saumet JL (1998) The narrow band hypothesis: an interesting approach for high-intensity transient signals (HITS) detection. Ultrasound Med Biol 24:375–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 199.
    Röther J, Wentz KU, Rautenberg W, Schwartz A, Hennerici M (1993) Magnetic resonance angiography in vertebrobasilar ischemia. Stroke 24:1310–1315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 200.
    Sabetai MM, Tegos TJ, Nicolaides AN, Dhanjil S, Pare GJ, Stevens JM (2000) Reproducibility of computer-quantified carotid plaque echogenicity: can we overcome the subjectivity? Stroke 31:96Google Scholar
  202. 201.
    Schmidt C, Wendelhag I (1999) How can the variability in ultrasound measurement of intima-media thickness be reduced? Studies of interobserver variability in carotid and femoral arteries. Clin Physiol 19:45–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 202.
    Schneider PA, Rossman ME, Bernstein EF, Torem S, Ringelstein EB, Otis SM (1988) Effect of internal carotid artery occlusion on intracranial hemodynamics. Transcranial Doppler evaluation and clinical correlation. Stroke 19:589–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 203.
    Schneider PA, Rossman ME, Torem S, Otis SM, Dillery RB, Bernstein EF (1988) Transcranial Doppler in the management of extracranial cerebrovascular disease: implications in diagnosis and monitoring. J Vasc Surg 7:223–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 204.
    Seidel G, Algermissen C, Christoph A, Ciaassen L, Vidal-Lang-wasser M, Katzer T (2000) Harmonic imaging of the human brain. Visualization of brain perfusion with ultrasound. Stroke 31:151–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 205.
    Selzer RH, Hodis HN, Kwong-Fu H, Mack WJ, Lee PL, Liu CR, Liu CH (1994) Evaluation of computerized edge tracking for quantifying intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery from B-mode ultrasound images. Atherosclerosis 111:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 206.
    Siebler M, Kleinschmidt A, Sitzer M, Steinmetz H, Freund HJ (1994) Cerebral microembolism in symptomatic and asymptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis. Neurology 44:615–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 207.
    Siebler M, Sitzer M, Rose G, Bendfeldt D, Steinmetz H (1993) Silent cerebral embolism caused by neurologically symptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis. Event rates before and after carotid endarterectomy. Brain 116:1005–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 208.
    Siebler M, Sitzer M, Steinmetz H (1993) Detection of intracranial emboli in patients with symptomatic extracranial carotid artery disease. Stroke 1992:1652–1654Google Scholar
  210. 209.
    Sitzer M, Fuerst G, Fischer H, Siebler M, Fehlings T, Kleinschmidt A, Kahn T, Steinmetz H (1993) Between-method correlations in quantifying internal carotid stenosis. Stroke 24:1513–1518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 210.
    Sitzer M, Furst G, Siebler M, Steinmetz H (1994) Usefulness of an intravenous contrast medium in the characterization of high-grade internal carotid stenosis with color Doppler-assisted duplex imaging. Stroke 25:385–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 211.
    Sitzer M, Muller W, Siebler M, Hort W, Kniemeyer HW, Jancke L, Steinmetz H (1995) Plaque ulceration and lumen thrombus are the main sources of cerebral microemboli in high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis. Stroke 26:1231–1233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 212.
    Sitzer M, Rose G, Furst G, Siebler M, Steinmetz H (1997) Characteristics and clinical value of an intravenous echo-enhancement agent in evaluation of high-grade internal carotid stenosis. J Neuroimag-ing 7 [Suppl 1]:S22–S25Google Scholar
  214. 213.
    Sliwka U, Lingnau A, Stohlmann WD, Schmidt P, Mull M, Diehl RR, Noth J (1997) Prevalence and time course of microembolic signals in patients with acute stroke; a prospective study. Stroke 28:358–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 214.
    Sliwka U, Rother J, Steinke W, Hennerici M (1991) Die Bedeutung der Duplexsonographie bei zerebralen Ischämien. (The value of duplex sonography in cerebral ischemia.) Bildgebung 58:182–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 215.
    Spencer MP, Cambell SD, Sealy JL, Henry FC, Lindbergh J (1969) Experiments on decompression bubbles in the circulation using ultrasonic and electromagnetic flow meters. J Occup Med 11:238–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 216.
    Spencer MP, Thomas GI, Nicholls SC, Sauvage LR (1990) Detection of middle cerebral artery emboli during carotid endarterectomy using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Stroke 21:415–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 217.
    Spencer MP, Whisler D (1986) Transorbital Doppler diagnosis of intracranial arterial stenosis. Stroke 17:916–921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 218.
    Steiner H, Staudach A, Spitzer D, Schaffer H (1994) Three-dimensional ultrasound in obstetrics and gynaecology: technique, possibilities and limitations. Hum Reprod 9:1773–1778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 219.
    Steinke W, Aulich A, Hennerici M (1989) Diagnose und Verlauf von Carotisdissektionen. DMW 114:1869–1875Google Scholar
  221. 220.
    Steinke W, Hennerici M (1989) Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of carotid artery plaques. J Cardiovasc Technol 8:15–22Google Scholar
  222. 221.
    Steinke W, Hennerici M, Rautenberg W, Mohr JP (1992) Symptomatic and asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenoses in Doppler color-flow imaging. Neurology 42:131–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 222.
    Steinke W, Kloetzsch C, Hennerici M (1990) Carotid artery disease assessed by color Doppler flow imaging: correlation with standard Doppler sonography and angiography. Am J Neuroradiol 11:259–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 223.
    Steinke W, Kloetzsch C, Hennerici M (1990) Variability of flow patterns in the normal carotid bifurcation. Atherosclerosis 84: 121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 224.
    Steinke W, Meairs S, Ries S, Hennerici M (1996) Sonographic assessment of carotid artery stenosis: comparison of power Doppler imaging and color Doppler flow imaging. Stroke 27:91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 225.
    Steinke W, Rautenberg W, Schwartz A, Hennerici M (1994) Noninvasive monitoring of internal carotid artery dissection. Stroke 25:998–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 226.
    Steinke W, Rautenberg W, Schwartz A, Sliwka U, Hennerici M (1992) Ultrasonographic diagnosis and monitoring of cervicocephalic arterial dissection. Cerebrovasc Dis 2:195Google Scholar
  228. 227.
    Steinke W, Rautenberg W, Sliwka U, Hennerici M (1993) Common carotid artery occlusion: clinical significance of a patent internal carotid artery. Neurol Sci 20:140Google Scholar
  229. 228.
    Sterpetti AV, Schultz RD, Feldhaus RJ, Davenport KL, Richardson M, Farina C, Hunter WJ (1988) Ultrasonographic features of carotid plaque and the risk of subsequent neurologic deficits. Surgery 104:652–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 229.
    Stolz E, Kaps M, Kern A, Dorndorf W (1999) Frontal bone windows for transcranial color-coded duplex sonography. Stroke 30:814–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 230.
    Strandness DE, Eikelboom BC (1998) Carotid artery stenosis-where do we go from here? Eur J Ultrasound 7 [Suppl 3]:S17–S26Google Scholar
  232. 231.
    Sturzenegger M, Mattle HP, Rivoir A, Rihs F, Schmid C (1993) Ultrasound findings in spontaneous extracranial vertebral artery dissection. Stroke 24:1910–1921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 232.
    Svindland A, Torvik A (1988) Atherosclerotic carotid disease in asymptomatic individuals: an histological study of 53 cases. Acta Neurol Scand 78:506–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 233.
    Taylor DC, Strandness DE Jr (1987) Carotid artery duplex scanning. J Clin Ultrasound 15:635–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 234.
    Tegos TJ, Sabetai MM, Nicolaides AN, Pare G, Elatrozy TS, Dhanjil S, Griffin M (2000) Comparability of the ultrasonic tissue characteristics of carotid plaques. J Ultrasound Med 19:407Google Scholar
  236. 235.
    Tettenborn B, Estol C, DeWitt LD, Kraemer G, Pessin MS, Caplan LR (1990) Accuracy of transcranial Doppler in the vertebrobasilar circulation. J Neurol 237:159Google Scholar
  237. 236.
    Tong DC, Albers GW (1995) Transcranial Doppler-detected microemboli in patients with acute stroke. Stroke 26:1588–1592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 237.
    Touboul PJ, Mas JL, Bousser MG, Laplane D (1988) Duplex scanning in extracranial vertebral artery dissection. Stroke 19:116–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 238.
    Touboul PJ, Prati P, Scarabin PY, Adrai V, Thibout E, Ducimetière P (1992) Use of monitoring software to improve the measurement of carotid wall thickness by B-mode imaging. J Hypertens Suppl 10: S37–S41Google Scholar
  240. 239.
    Trattnig S, Schwaighofer B, Hubsch P, Schwarz M, Kainberger F (1991) Color-coded Doppler sonography of vertebral arteries. J Ultrasound Med 10:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 240.
    Tuteur P, Reivich M, Goldberg HI, Cooper ES, West JW, McHenry LC, Chernik N (1976) Transient responses of cerebral blood flow and ventilation to changes in PaCO2 in normal subjects and patients with cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 7:584–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 241.
    Uhlendorf V, Hoffmann C (1994) Nonlinear acoustical response of coated microbubbles in diagnostic ultrasound. Ultrasonics Symp Proc 1559–1562Google Scholar
  243. 242.
    Valdueza JM, Harms L, Doepp F, Koscielny J, Einhaupl KM (1997) Venous microembolic signals detected in patients with cerebral sinus thrombosis. Stroke 28:1607–1609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 243.
    Valton L, Larrue V, Arrué P, Géraud G, Bès A (1995) Asymptomatic cerebral embolic signals in patients with carotid stenosis: correlation with appearance of plaque ulceration on angiography. Stroke 26:813–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 244.
    Valton L, Larrue V, Le Traon AP, Massabuau P, Géraud G (1998) Microembolic signals and risk of early recurrence in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack. Stroke 29:2125–2128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 245.
    Van Zuilen EV, Mess WH, Jansen C, Van der Tweel I, Van Gijn J, Ackerstaff GA (1996) Automatic embolus detection compared with human experts. A Doppler ultrasound study. Stroke 27:1840–1843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 246.
    Van Zuilen EV, Moll FL, Vermeulen FE, Mauser HW, van Gijn J, Ackerstaff RG (1995) Detection of cerebral microemboli by means of transcranial Doppler monitoring before and after carotid en-darterectomy. Stroke 26:210–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 247.
    Von Birgelen C, de Vrey EA, Mintz GS, Nicosia A, Bruining N, Li W, Slager CJ, Roelandt JR, Serruys PW, de Feyter PJ (1997) ECG-gated three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound: feasibility and reproducibility of the automated analysis of coronary lumen and atherosclerotic plaque dimensions in humans. Circulation 96:2944 – 2952Google Scholar
  249. 248.
    Wendelhag I, Liang Q, Gustavsson T, Wikstrand J (1997) A new automated computerized analyzing system simplifies readings and reduces the variability in ultrasound measurement of intimamedia thickness. Stroke 28:2195–2200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 249.
    Widder B, Paulat K, Hackspacher J, Hamann H, Hutschenreiter S, Kreutzer C, Ott F, Vollmar J (1990) Morphological characterization of carotid artery stenoses by ultrasound duplex scanning. Ultrasound Med Biol 16:349–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 250.
    Wijman CA, Babikian VL, Matjucha IC, Koleini B, Hyde C, Winter MR, Pochay VE (1998) Cerebral microembolism in patients with retinal ischemia. Stroke 29:1139–1143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 251.
    Wolverson MK, Bashiti HM, Peterson GJ (1983) Ultrasonic tissue characterisation of atheromatous plaques using high-resolution real-time scanner. Ultrasound Med Biol 9:599–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 252.
    Yao J, van Sambeek MR, Dall’Agata A, van Disk LC, Kozakova M, Koudstaal PJ, Roelandt JR (1998) Three-dimensional ultrasound study of carotid arteries before and after endarterectomy; analysis of stenotic lesions and surgical impact on the vessel. Stroke 29: 2026–2031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 253.
    Zbornikova V, Lassvik C (1991) Common carotid artery occlusion: haemodynamic features. Cerebrovasc Dis 1:136–141Google Scholar
  255. 254.
    Zwiebel WJ, Austin CW, Sackett JF, Strother CM (1983) Correlation of high-resolution, B-mode and continuous-wave Doppler sonography with arteriography in the diagnosis of carotid stenosis. Radiology 149:523–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 255.
    Zwiebel WJ, Knighton R (1990) Duplex examination of the carotid arteries. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI 11:97–135Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Meairs
  • Michael Hennerici

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations