Stress-Engineered Quantum Dots: Nature’s Way

  • Anupam Madhukar
Part of the NanoScience and Technology book series (NANO)


Serendipity and scientific endeavor have been comrades even before Horace Walpole coined the word in The Three Princes of Serendip, the Sanskrit-derived name for the modern-day island nation of Sri Lanka. It is no surprise then that what we today dub as self-assembled quantum dots, the dominant theme of this dedicatory volume, also originate in the chance discovery of the existence of coherent (i.e., defect-free) three-dimensional (3D) islands in strained semiconductor heteroepitaxy [1,2].


Surface Stress Island Size American Physical Society Stripe Mesa XTEM Image 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    S. Guha, A. Madhukar, K.C. Rajkumar: Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2110 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.J. Eaglesham, M. Cerullo: Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    See, e.g., J.W. Matthews: In: Epitaxial Growth, Part B (Academic Press, New York 1975)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.J. Schafer, M.D. Lind, S.P. Kowalczyk, R.W. Grant: J. Vac. Sei. Tech. B 1, 688 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B.F. Lewis, T.C. Lee, F.J. Grunthaner, A. Madhukar, R. Fernandez, J. Maser-jian: J. Vac. Sei. Tech. B 2, 419 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Goldstein, F. Glas, J.Y. Marzin, M.N. Charasse, G. LeRoux: Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1099 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Hull, A. Fisher-Colbrie: Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 851 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G.L. Price: Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 469 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    V.A. Shchukin, N.N. Ledentsov, P.S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg: Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2968 (1995) and references thereinADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Madhukar: Surf. Sci. 132, 334 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Madhukar, S.V. Ghaisas: Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1066 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Singh, K.K. Bajaj: J. Vac. Sei. Tech. B 2, 576 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.V. Ghaisas, A. Madhukar: Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1599 (1988); J. Vac. Sei. Tech. B 7, 264 (1989); Proc. SPIE 944 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA 1988) p. 16ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. Grandjean, J. Massies: J. Crystal Growth 134, 51 (1993); C. Ratsch, P. Smi-lauer, D.D. Vvedensky, A. Zangwill: J. Phys. I 6, 575 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H.T. Dobbs, D.D. Vvedensky, A. Zangwill, J. Johansson, N. Carlson, W. Seifert: Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 897 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Koduvely, A. Zangwill: Phys. Rev. B 60, R2204 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Madhukar, P. Chen, Q. Xie, A. Konkar, T.R. Ramachandran, N.P. Ko-bayashi, R. Viswanathan: In: NATO Advanced Research Workshop (February 1955, Ringberg Castle, Germany), ed. by K. Eberl, P.M. Petroff, P. Demeester (Kluwer Publishers, Dordrecht 1995) p. 19Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Q. Xie, A. Madhukar, P. Chen, N.P. Kobayashi: Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2542 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Heitz, T.R. Ramachandran, A. Kalburge, Q. Xie, I. Mukhametzhanov, P. Chen, A. Madhukar: Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4071 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T.R. Ramachandran, R. Heitz, N.P. Kobayashi, A. Kalburge, W. Yu, P. Chen, A. Madhukar: J. Crystal Growth 175/176, 216 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    I. Mukhametzhanov, R. Heitz, J. Zeng, P. Chen, A. Madhukar: Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1841 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Madhukar, T.R. Ramachandran, A. Konkar, I. Mukhametzhanov, W. Yu, P. Chen: Appl. Surf. Sei. 123/124, 266 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    I. Mukhametzhanov, Z. Wei, R. Heitz, A. Madhukar: Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 85 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. W. Gibbs: ‘Thermodynamics’. In: Collected Works, Vol. 1 (Longmans, London 1928)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Guha, A. Madhukar: J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8662 (1993); R. Viswanathan, A. Madhukar, S.B. Ogale: J. Crystal Growth 150, 190 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Madhukar: Thin Solid Films 231, 8 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    V.A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg: Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1125 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    K.C. Rajkumar, A. Madhukar, P. Chen, A. Konkar, L. Chen, K. Rammohan, D.H. Rich: J. Vac. Sei. Tech. B 12, 1071 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Konkar, K.C. Rajkumar, Q. Xie, P. Chen, A. Madhukar, H.T. Lin, D.H. Rich: J. Cryst. Growth 150, 311 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    E. Kapon, D.M. Hwang, R. Bhat: Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 430 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. Biasiol, E. Kapon: Phys Rev. Lett. 81, 2962, (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S.C. Jain, H.E. Maes, K. Pinardi: Thin Solid Films 292, 218 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Guha, A. Madhukar, Li Chen: Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2304 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Guha: MBE Growth of InGaAs and AlGaAs on patterned and nonpatterned GaAs(100): A study of inter-facet migration, morphology and defect formation. PhD Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (1991)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    B.J. Spencer, P.W. Voorhees, S.H. Davies: Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 952 (1991)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.J. Srolovitz: Acta Metall. 37, 621 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Madhukar, S.V. Ghaisas:{at} CRC Critical Reviews in Solid State and Material Sciences 14, 1 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J.A. Venables: In: Current Topics in Materials Science, Vol. 2. ed. by E. Kaldis (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1977) p. 165Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    P. Kratzer, CG. Morgan, M. Scheffler: Phys. Rev. B 59, 15246, (1999); C.G. Morgan, P. Kratzer, M. Scheffler: Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4886 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    L.G. Wang, P. Kratzer, M. Scheffler, N. Moll: Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4042 (1999); L.G. Wang, P. Kratzer, N. Moll, M. Scheffler: Phys. Rev. B 62, 1897 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Madhukar, P. Chen, F. Voillot, M. Thomson, J.Y. Kim, W.C. Tang, S.V. Ghaisas: J. Cryst. Growth 81, 26 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    S.B. Ogale, A. Madhukar: Paper presented at the 16th PCSI conference, January 1989 (Raleigh, NC, USA)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    N. Liu, J. Tersoff, O. Baklenov, A.L. Holmes, Jr., C.K. Shih: Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 334 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. Rosenauer, U. Fischer, D. Gerthsen, A. Forster: Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3868 (1997); M. De Giorgi, A. Taurino, A. Passaseo, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani: Phys. Rev. B 63, 245302-1 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    N.P. Kobayashi, T.R. Ramachandran, P. Chen, A. Madhukar: Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3299 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    I. Mukhametzhanov: Growth control, structural characterization, and electronic structure of Stranski-Krastanow InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots. PhD Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (2000)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    T.I. Kamins, G. Medeiros-Ribiero, D.A.A. Ohlberg, R.S. Williams: Appl. Phys. A 67, 1 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    O. Leifield, E. Müller, D. Grützmacher, B. Müller, K. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 994 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    D.E. Jesson, G. Chen, K.M. Chen, S.J. Pennycook: Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5156 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Q. Xie, P. Chen, A. Madhukar: Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2051 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Q. Xie, P. Chen, A. Kalburge, T.R. Ramachandran, A. Nayfonov, A. Konkar, A. Madhukar: J. Cryst. Growth 150, 357 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, H.P. Strunk, H.J. Maier: Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3617 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    O. Stier, M. Grundmann, D. Bimberg: Phys. Rev. B 59, 5688 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    W. Yu, A. Madhukar: Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 905 (1997); Erratum: Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4939 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. Makeev, A. Madhukar: Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5542 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. Tersoff, C. Teichert, M. Lagally: Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1675 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    W. Yu, A. Madhukar (1996, unpublished)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    N. Kirstaedter, N.N. Ledentsov, M. Grundman, D. Bimberg, V.M. Ustinov, S.S. Ruvimov, M.V. Maximov, P.S. Kop’ev, Zh.I. Alferov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. Heydenreich: Electron. Lett. 30, 1416 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Q. Xie, A. Kalburge, P. Chen, A. Madhukar: IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 965 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    P.G. Eliseev, H. Li, A. Strintz, G.T. Lui, T.C. Newell, K.J. Malloy, L.F. Lester: Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 262 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    L. Zhang, T. Boggess, D.G. Deppe, D.L. Huffaker, O.B. Shchekin, C. Cao: Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1222 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    D. Bimberg, M. Grundman, N.N. Ledentsov, M.H. Mao, Ch. Ribbat, R. Sellin, V.M. Ustinov, A.E. Zhukov, Zh.I. Alferov, J.A. Lott: phys. stat. sol. (b) 224, 787 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Z.H. Chen, O. Baklenov, E.T. Kim, I. Mukhametzhanov, J. Tie, A. Madhukar: J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4558 (2001) and reference thereinADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Z. Ye, J.C. Campbell, Z.H. Chen, E.T. Kim, A. Madhukar: Appl. Phys. Lett. (2002) (in press)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    E.T. Kim, Z.H. Chen, M. Ho, A. Madhukar: J. Vac. Sei. Tech. B (2002) (in press)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    G. Springholz, V. Holy, M. Pinczolits, G. Bauer: Science 282, 734 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    V.L. Than, V. Yam, P. Boucaud, F. Fortuna, C. Ulysse, D. Bouchier, L. Ver-voort, J.M. Lourtioz: Phys. Rev. B 60, 5851 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    R. Heitz, I. Mukhametzhanov, J. Zeng, P. Chen, A. Madhukar, D. Bimberg: Superlattices and Microstructures 25, 97 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    R. Heitz, I. Mukhametzhanov, P. Chen, A. Madhukar: Phys. Rev. B 58, R10151 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    R. Heitz, I. Mukhametzhanov, H. Born, M. Grundmann, A. Hoffmann, A. Madhukar, D. Bimberg: Physica B 272, 8 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    A. Konkar, A. Madhukar, P. Chen: Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 220 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    A. Konkar, A. Madhukar, P. Chen: MRS Proceedings 380, 17 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    A. Konkar: Unstrained and strained semiconductor nanostructure fabrication via molecular beam epitaxical growth on non-planar patterned GaAs(001) substrates. PhD Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (1999)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    G. Jin, J.L. Liu, K.L. Wang: Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3591 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    X. Su, R.K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, A. Madhukar: Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4577 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    M. Makeev, A. Madhukar: unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    O.G. Schmidt, S. Kiravittaya, Y. Nakamura, H. Heidemeyer, R. Song-muang, C. Müller, N.Y. Jin-Philip, K. Eberl, H. Wawra, S. Christiansen, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Schweizer: Surf. Science, in pressGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Z.H. Chen, E.T. Kim, A. Madhukar: Appl. Phys. Lett., submittedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Z.H. Chen, E.T. Kim, A. Madhukar: J. Vac. Sei. Technol., in pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anupam Madhukar

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations