Human Allergogeneticists Should Listen to Their Dog’s Barking
A colony of Beagle dogs was used within the last 6 years to develop an allergie dog model. The dogs were sensitized to various allergens, such as recombinant Betvi (birch) and Phi p5 (timothy), ovalbumin, peanut and many others. The first observation was that dogs clearly segregated into high and low IgE responder dogs when immunized for the first time by intradermal or subcutaneous injections of allergen within l month of birth. Characteristic for the high IgE response was the possibility to boost it at any time later in life and to extend it later to other allergens, like is usually the case in atopic man. Low IgE responder dogs showed a low response which was not boostable and could not be extended to other allergens later on. Numerous breeding experiments over 5 years demonstrated clearly that the high IgE response is inherited as a dominant trait.
However, it was then found that this trait does not express itself if first immunization of high IgE responders occurs later than the 3rd month of life. In that case, a potent suppressor mechanism for IgE takes over and the animal presents phenotypically later as a low IgE responder. The mode of sensitization is also crucial for later phenotypic expression. Sensitization by inhalation to the same allergens is obviously regulated by some additional gene(s) since only part of the high IgE responder litters may be sensitized by inhalation. A similar phenomenon was observed in the spontaneous occurrence of IgE to house dust mites or pollens in the dog colony.
These results show clearly that genetic studies based, like is still the case in man, on the spontaneous occurrence of IgE responses to ubiquitous allergens and phenotypes detected long after birth would lead to entirely wrong genetic conclusions.
KeywordsDust Europe Hydroxide Flare Posite
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Coca A., Cooke R.A. On the classification of the phenomena of hypersensitiven ess. J. Immunology, 8:163–182,1923Google Scholar
- 2.Coca A., Grove E.R Studies in hyper sensitiven ess. XIII. A study of atopic reagins. J. Immunol., 10:445–464,1925Google Scholar
- 4.Holgate S.T., Wahn U. The genetics of atopy and asthma Clin. Exp. Allergy 29(Suppl.4):1–59,1999Google Scholar
- 5.Cookson W.O.C.M. Genetic aspects of atopy. In Epidemiology of Clinical Allergy (Burrm L. Ed), Monographs in Allergy, Karger, Basle, 31:171–189,1993Google Scholar
- 6.Marsh D.G. Genetic studies of IgE responsiveness and asthma. In ‘From Genetics to Quality of Life’ (Chanes R, Bousquet J., Michel F.B., Godard R Eds) Hogrefe&Huber, Göttingen, 1996, pp. 9–14Google Scholar
- 7.Hopkin J.M., Shirakawa T. The genetics of atopy. In ‘Prediction and Prevention of Childhood Allergy’ (Sasaki S., Miyamoto T., Hopkin J.M. Eds) Churchill-Livingstone, Osaka, 1995, pp 7–15Google Scholar
- 10.de Week A.L., Derer M., Mayer P., Stumper B., Schöni B., Haemmerling R,, Kristensen R, Itaya H., Yamasita Y., Hasegawa A. Perspectives of diagnostics of canine allergies—a new serologie method for determination of allergen-specific IgE with strip tests. Prakt. Tierarzt, 79:6–23,1998Google Scholar
- 12.de Week A.L, Derer M., Mayer P., Stumper B. Allergy starts early in life: clinical and experimental evidence. In ‘Prediction and Prevention of Childhood Allergy’ (Sasaki S., Miyamoto T., Hopkin J.M. Eds) Churchill-Livingstone, Osaka, 1995, pp 181–197Google Scholar
- 13.Schiessl B., de Weck A.L., Hodgkin-Pickart L., Zuni M., Zemann B., Mayer P., Liehl E. Importance of early allergen contact for the development of sustained immunoglobulin E response in Beagle dogs. Clin. Exp. Allergy, submittedGoogle Scholar
- 16.de Week A.L. Food allergy, problems, fiction and hard facts. In ‘Highlights in Food Allergy’ (Wühtrich B., Ortolani C, Eds) Karger, Basel,1998, pp 1–8Google Scholar
- 18.Zemann B., Griot-Wenk M.E., Schiessl B.,Nefzger M., Mayer P., Liehl E, Schneider H., de Week A.L. Induction of primary IgE oral tolerance to bb-lactoglobulin in an allergie dogmodel. Clin. Exp. Allergy, submittedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Umetsu D. Protective immunity in asthma and allergy. Congress Swiss Society of Allergology and Immunology, Lausanne, April 2001Google Scholar