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Zusammenfassung

Die Nahrungsaufnahme und die ihr zugrunde liegenden Regulationsmechanismen gelten als Basis eines adäquaten Ernährungszustandes. Dieser ist abhängig von einer gesicherten Energieaufnahme, einer ausgewogenen Zufuhr von Mikro- und Makronährstoffen sowie einer ausreichenden Aufnahme von Flüssigkeit. Unzureichende Nahrungsaufnahme oder vermehrter Substratbedarf ohne adäquate Zufuhrsteigerung als auch Störungen des Stoffwechsels auf dem Boden verschiedener Krankheiten (Tumor, Infektion) führen zwangsläufig zum Abbau der endogenen Reserven; es kommt unweigerlich zur Ausbildung einer Mangelernährung [28,52]. Diese bedingt eine Verminderung der Leistungs- und Funktionsfähigkeit einzelner Organsysteme mit dem erhöhten Risiko für das Auftreten von Komplikationen und einer damit oftmals verbundenen höheren Mortalität. Eine frühzeitige Erkennung und Abschätzung einer Mangelernährung in der Betreuung des Kranken ist für das weitere (ernährungs)therapeutische Vorgehen daher essenziell (_ Tabelle 1-1).

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

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  • J. M. Hackl

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