In this chapter, we extend the concepts developed in the previous chapters to many-particle systems. Specifically, we consider a physical system consisting of N particles of masses m1,…,m N which interact pairwise via the potentials V ij (xi-x j ), where x j is the position of the j-th particle. Examples of such systems include atoms or molecules — i.e., systems consisting of electrons and nuclei interacting via Coulomb forces.
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