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Mechanische Sinne

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Zusammenfassung

Alle lebenden Zellen reagieren auf mechanische Reize. Sie regulieren z.B. ihren osmotischen Druck und brauchen hierzu mechanosensorische Informationen über die Dehnung der Zellmembran. Meldungen über den mechanischen Zustand liefern Ionenkanäle, deren Öffnungsgrad direkt von mechanischen Reizen gesteuert wird. Ein solcher mechanisch gesteuerter Ionenkanal, der Teil einer über alle Organismen verbreiteten Familie mechanisch sensitiver Ionenkanäle sein könnte, wurde im Bakterium Escherichia coli isoliert. Bei dem Nematoden Caenorhabditis elegans (wegen seiner Zellkonstanz ein beliebtes Modelltier der Genetiker und Entwicklungsbiologen) liefern die Berührungsempfindlichkeit des Hautmuskelschlauches sechs Neurone, deren Mechanosensitivität auf zwölf Genen beruht, wovon wenigstens drei an der Bildung mechanosensitiver Ionenkanäle mitwirken. Die Fasern dieser sechs Neurone verlaufen längs des Hautmuskelschlauches in einer Rinne der Unterhaut (Abb. 5.1a). Ein kollagenreicher Mantel koppelt die Nervenfaser mechanisch an die Haut und führt vermutlich den Reiz zu.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zoologisches InstitutUniversität MünchenMünchenGermany
  2. 2.Fachbereich Biologie — Zoologie —Universität MarburgMarburgGermany

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